The Virtual wall of Europe – (VPRO documentary – 2014) [w/ subs]

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00:01:04 – George Orwell spoke of Big Brother.
00:01:07 – But now we see lots of Little Sisters.
00:01:15 – Imagine I go on holiday with my family. They go through the green gate…
00:01:20 – …and I, for whatever reason, go through the amber or red gate.
00:02:17 – Let's see if they'll let us in.
00:02:31 – Thank you.
00:02:50 – This company is called Morpho, it's a subsidiary of Safran.
00:02:54 – Safran is a French company.
00:02:57 – They're in the security industry…
00:03:01 – …in the broadest sense possible, defence and military.
00:03:07 – And their identification division is very well developed.
00:03:12 – They bought Dutch passport company Joh. Enschedé in Haarlem…
00:03:17 – …so Morpho makes our passports.
00:03:20 – You'll see lots of biometric equipment.
00:03:24 – Morpho is the world leader in biometric technology.
00:03:31 – What are biometric characteristics?
00:03:33 – That can be a fingerprint, face or iris recognition.
00:03:41 – And nowadays also vein recognition.
00:03:45 – There are ways to identify vein patterns.
00:03:51 – Through digital certification they can be linked to an individual.
00:03:56 – A vein in your body?
00:03:58 – Veins in your hand, in this case. A finger or your palm.
00:04:03 – So they can identify you by looking at your hand.
00:04:50 – Back a little bit. That's okay.
00:04:53 – And look in the middle of the two cameras, please.
00:05:00 – This is like criminals.
00:05:02 – But it's for civil purposes actually.
00:05:05 – There you go, we can label all the rest.
00:05:08 – You delete it, right? – Of course.
00:05:32 – The European Union must adopt a new approach.
00:05:38 – The international security market has grown enormously.
00:05:42 – From ten billion euros in 2001…
00:05:47 – …to more than 100 billion in 2011.
00:05:52 – This industry employs 180,000 people in the EU.
00:05:57 – And the industry has a turnover of almost 30 billion euros.
00:06:01 – The security industry thus offers tremendous growth potential…
00:06:08 – …which we must tap into.
00:06:11 – It's a promising industry…
00:06:15 – …that shows a synergy between the security of citizens…
00:06:22 – …and national defence.
00:11:49 – Thank you. You have been identified.
00:13:13 – The classic image of the relationship between technology and border control…
00:13:19 – …is that of a barrier.
00:13:21 – Or slightly more contrived, that of the Great Wall.
00:13:25 – A wall on the borders of a state or empire, to separate inside and outside…
00:13:31 – …and to control border traffic.
00:13:35 – Actual physical walls are no longer around…
00:13:39 – …since the fall of the Iron Curtain between Eastern and Western Europe.
00:13:44 – But new walls have replaced it.
00:13:47 – To give you an idea of control in this day and age…
00:13:52 – …it is often compared with the so-called panopticon.
00:13:57 – The panopticon is an all-seeing eye, but still operates from a central point.
00:14:03 – Surveillance is the next phase. There is no central point…
00:14:07 – …but a linking of systems, lots of small eyes…
00:14:13 – …in the form of fingerprints…
00:14:17 – …identity cards, documentation, f***** recognition…
00:14:22 – …iris recognition, like the Privium programme at Schiphol…
00:14:26 – …which are interconnected…
00:14:29 – …and track the movements of citizens and foreigners…
00:14:34 – …into and within Europe.
00:16:48 – Rather hypocritically, it is claimed that…
00:16:53 – …in order to prevent disasters like those at Lampedusa…
00:16:58 – …controls must be strengthened, and thus more money must be spent on them…
00:17:03 – …even though most of those disasters…
00:17:06 – …are the direct consequence of those controls.
00:17:21 – In the official discourse international terrorism and illegal migration…
00:17:27 – …are always closely linked.
00:17:30 – It's interesting to read the reports of the European Commission…
00:17:36 – …published after 9/11.
00:17:39 – Because they establish a systematic connection…
00:17:46 – …between those two threats.
00:17:51 – Terrorism and illegal migration.
00:17:54 – Most notably the 'false' asylum requests by people…
00:17:58 – …who are suspected of being involved in terrorist actions.
00:24:11 – There's a notable shift from border control to control in general.
00:24:19 – The control or management, as it's often called, of mobility.
00:24:25 – Of movement.
00:24:27 – That means the difference between people from outside Europe…
00:24:34 – …and the citizens of a country, who live in Europe…
00:24:40 – …is getting smaller. They're both objects of control.
00:24:44 – And systems developed separately for these groups…
00:24:49 – …are now merging.
00:25:57 – The funny thing is, here we have a refined device.
00:26:01 – A nice refined gate, for respectable people.
00:26:06 – But there they have the same technology, only for military purposes…
00:26:11 – …and it's rugged, less refined.
00:26:18 – Here we have remote fingerprint identification…
00:26:22 – …gates you can walk through with your passport…
00:26:27 – …which are becoming a common sight at European airports.
00:26:32 – They use f***** recognition. Gradually citizens will notice these devices.
00:26:38 – This is what we can expect? – Yes, the gates become multifunctional.
00:26:42 – Both for immigrants with the right paperwork and the right visa…
00:26:50 – …and European citizens with their electronic passport.
00:26:55 – It will become one system.
00:26:58 – In future when you get to the border control…
00:27:03 – …at, say, an airport, they will already know your profile.
00:27:07 – What kind of person are you? Are you a risk?
00:27:11 – Now you're only checked when you arrive.
00:27:15 – But using booking systems…
00:27:18 – …more information about you will be known beforehand…
00:27:23 – …information that we provided ourselves…
00:27:27 – …which is then used to build a profile of you…
00:27:32 – …and assess the risk of every individual.
00:27:36 – The goal is to spend little time on people who are fine…
00:27:41 – …and more time on people with which there might be a problem.
00:27:50 – Look, footprints.
00:27:53 – And then… Let's have a look.
00:27:56 – They scan my iris. I can't see whether they scan my face or my iris, or both.
00:28:02 – That's what it does. – How does it work?
00:28:05 – It makes a photo of my face.
00:28:08 – And maybe it makes a photo of my iris too.
00:28:12 – Your iris is unique, right? – Yes, just like a finger print.
00:28:24 – To keep our world safe, we want to know beforehand who people are.
00:28:31 – Then you can anticipate.
00:28:34 – A shift from gathering information when something happens…
00:28:39 – …to gathering information beforehand.
00:28:43 – To do that, you need to gather information from various places about people…
00:28:50 – …who are, for example, crossing a border.
00:28:55 – To do that in advance, you need to build a haystack…
00:29:00 – …of all the information in the world…
00:29:03 – …and then you look for needles.
00:29:06 – That's the only way to anticipate.
00:29:24 – Below the social and political debate about migration is another layer…
00:29:30 – …namely the technological development…
00:29:32 – …that makes it possible to connect files.
00:29:36 – Take profiling, for example.
00:29:39 – They don't simply build profiles of you and me…
00:29:46 – …but they become risk profiles.
00:29:48 – Various information, where you're from, what you studied…
00:29:54 – …your acquaintances, in which social circles you will move…
00:29:58 – …is then combined in order to assign a risk category to someone.
00:30:12 – I too have a digital footprint online. I fly, I drive a car.
00:30:17 – So I'm photographed when I get to Paris. It's full of cameras.
00:30:23 – I book hotels, I buy things online.
00:30:29 – Maybe I'm on social media, Facebook. Then you can check: Who are his friends?
00:30:36 – All those pieces can be used to build a profile.
00:30:42 – But then you need to combine everything from different systems…
00:30:48 – …to correlate all that information.
00:30:58 – Normal travellers in Europe could be faced with…
00:31:06 – …f***** recognition systems based on a photo…
00:31:11 – …that are linked to cameras to alongside roads.
00:31:16 – Say you're travelling to Schiphol Airport…
00:31:20 – …maybe the cameras in the tunnel to the airport identify your face…
00:31:27 – …and automatically connect that with your ticket and credit card payment.
00:31:35 – So once you've been identified by those cameras…
00:31:39 – …your destination also becomes known.
00:31:47 – Your car has then become the border.
00:31:50 – Or, better yet, the border was the moment you bought your ticket.
00:31:55 – The border then becomes the linking of information…
00:32:00 – …preceding, in time and location, your journey from one country to another.
00:32:10 – In fact, we're constantly crossing borders.
00:32:13 – Borders are everywhere, and thus always.
00:32:17 – And because the time of payment, planning and actual travel…
00:32:23 – …can be linked…
00:32:26 – …travelling has really become moving.
00:32:33 – And collecting that information…
00:32:36 – …is thus becoming a part of European migration policy.
00:32:44 – We're at Schiphol Airport, a big, international airport.
00:32:49 – What makes an airport interesting, is that the European border runs right through it.
00:32:56 – I'm now outside Europe, outside the Schengen zone.
00:33:03 – And inside the airport I cross a border.
00:33:09 – And nowadays we have new gates, that utilise our new passports…
00:33:14 – …with this sign, which means it contains a chip.
00:33:18 – All the information in your passport is also on that chip…
00:33:24 – …including your photo.
00:34:06 – In order to assess in advance whether travellers form a risk…
00:34:13 – …IATA has developed a new system: Checkpoint of the Future.
00:34:21 – It consists of three categories of travellers:
00:34:25 – Green, amber and red.
00:34:31 – Green is 'fine'.
00:34:34 – Amber is 'unclear' and red is 'suspect'.
00:34:38 – And each category has a separate channel.
00:34:43 – If you're green, they don't check much, because they've verified everything.
00:34:48 – If you're a question mark, they'll check a bit more.
00:34:52 – And if you're suspect, you'll be lucky if you get through at all.
00:34:57 – That you're not taken away by police?
00:35:00 – That middle category…
00:35:04 – We both could also become orange if we do something unexpected.
00:35:10 – Well, if you do something that is bad…
00:35:14 – …you could end up in that middle category.
00:35:19 – Or they could mistakenly put you in that category based on wrong information.
00:35:25 – It's a subject of hot debate…
00:35:29 – …because this system, Checkpoint of the Future, has three gates.
00:35:34 – Say I'm in a queue with my family…
00:35:37 – …and they go through the green gate and I'm picked out.
00:35:41 – That's not a pleasant experience, it's not very traveller-friendly.
00:35:46 – So the actual implementation is still up for debate.
00:36:01 – This technology or so-called administrative ecology…
00:36:07 – …is generating a variety of categories, of citizens and foreigners…
00:36:15 – …that it's becoming unclear to people to which category they belong.
00:36:20 – Because it's possible to collect all this information…
00:36:24 – …and European databases can contain tens of millions files on people…
00:36:31 – …when you connect that information…
00:36:36 – …it becomes tempting to create more categories.
00:36:40 – And that results in a gray area…
00:36:45 – …between citizens, who clearly have the right to be here…
00:36:51 – …and those who don't have the right to be here.
00:36:55 – People who don't have the right to be here under any law…
00:36:59 – …or unjustly claim to be a refugee.
00:37:02 – But in that gray area it becomes harder to determine…
00:37:06 – …whether people have the right to be here…
00:37:09 – …and who determines whether someone has that right.
00:37:13 – Using technology to identify people…
00:37:17 – …has two sides at opposite ends of a boundary…
00:37:22 – …between people who can and people who can't travel.
00:37:28 – On the one hand new services are developed…
00:37:31 – …to make travel, for those who have the right to travel, much easier.
00:37:36 – An individual is then superior to others in terms of travel possibilities.
00:37:55 – In France there's a system called Parafe…
00:37:58 – …that allows you to pass controls at Roissy Charles de Gaulle Airport…
00:38:04 – …without having to wait in line for the police…
00:38:08 – …by providing a digital fingerprint at a special post.
00:38:12 – It's not obligatory.
00:38:14 – But if you use it, you're a VIP and you're set.
00:38:18 – But in future, if you don't use it…
00:38:22 – …you'll have to wait in line longer next to foreigners…
00:38:28 – …which you won't like…
00:38:31 – …so you are encouraged to use this system…
00:38:37 – …and link it to your information.
00:38:41 – But the system starts earlier.
00:38:45 – From the moment you get a credit card and a mobile phone…
00:38:50 – …and all those things that make life easier…
00:38:54 – …for people with money. But that's how they get in that system.
00:39:14 – George Orwell spoke of Big Brother.
00:39:18 – But now we see lots of Little Sisters.
00:39:21 – Little sisters with little eyes, that aren't controlled centrally…
00:39:27 – …but are in mutual harmony…
00:39:30 – …and form the driving force behind the technologisation of migration policy.
00:39:35 – Big Brother gave the illusion of an evil genius…
00:39:40 – …in the technology that controls citizens.
00:39:45 – But this situation of surveillance…
00:39:49 – …with a network of little eyes throughout society…
00:39:53 – …that track and connect all kinds of information…
00:39:58 – …has undermined this central plan.
00:40:01 – Technology now offers certain possibilities…
00:40:05 – …that are eagerly adopted by governments…
00:40:08 – …if it helps them control people's freedom of movement.
00:40:34 – This hunger for information, the more you collect, the more you want.
00:40:40 – Psychologically, you can't bear it…
00:40:44 – …to see this information come by and not grab it.
00:40:48 – For some people at intelligence services…
00:40:53 – …weekends are h***.
00:40:57 – You can't collect information, you're missing it.
00:41:01 – You know it's there… – Yes, but it's the weekend and…
00:41:06 – I'm exaggerating a bit, but it's a common event…
00:41:12 – …that people want to know more and more. Because it could be that person…
00:41:22 – Another problem is that the computer software used for these systems…
00:41:27 – …is largely opaque.
00:41:30 – So when you or I, travellers or foreigners…
00:41:34 – …are confronted with an unacceptable decision…
00:41:38 – …or something that, in your mind, needs to be rectified…
00:41:42 – …it's very hard to verify how that decision was made…
00:41:48 – …and to have it corrected.
00:41:51 – Once I'm on the 'red' list it becomes hard to get off it?
00:41:57 – First of all, it'll be hard to verify that you're on the 'red' list at all…
00:42:02 – …let alone find out why.
00:42:05 – That's a problem for you, and potentially for everyone…
00:42:09 – …as well as the lawyers who could possibly help you…
00:42:14 – …prove your stay somewhere is lawful.
00:42:19 – You don't know why you're on the 'red' list?
00:42:22 – No, that is unclear.
00:42:41 – Smart borders are the ideal outcome of this project…
00:42:46 – …regarding the circulation and non-circulation of people…
00:42:51 – …based country of origin, but also their social class.
00:42:55 – For example, Spain and Portugal…
00:43:01 – …are now putting together the legal and economical framework…
00:43:08 – …that would make it possible for non-Europeans to settle there…
00:43:12 – …and receive a residence permit or even adopt their nationality.
00:43:18 – It's aimed at foreigners who will invest money. Big sums of money.
00:43:25 – So wealthy non-Europeans…
00:43:30 – …can join the class of Europeans…
00:43:36 – …or the citizens of other industrialised countries.
00:43:41 – In a sense that will be the future of the definition of borders:
00:43:50 – It's less about physical borders on a map…
00:43:55 – …but about social, economic and racial boundaries.
00:44:10 – There exists a worldwide apartheid…
00:44:13 – …as a result of which some people are stuck in the country where they live…
00:44:20 – …and others can travel as they please.
00:44:23 – This discrepancy between people who can and can't travel freely…
00:44:28 – …encourages both illegal migration…
00:44:32 – …and the barriers against illegal migration…
00:44:35 – …as well as the associated trafficking, and the deaths among migrants.
00:44:41 – We thus live in a system that is being built worldwide…
00:44:46 – …that makes a generally accepted distinction…
00:44:53 – …between those who have the right to travel the earth…
00:44:58 – …and those who don't.
00:45:06 – From Libya to Italy, 23 hours.
00:45:11 – 30 ladies and 140 men and children.
00:45:18 – One time at night there was a storm.
00:45:23 – Tides. So many people.
00:45:27 – There was no light on the ship.
00:45:30 – You are afraid, as a human being.
00:45:34 – The girls are afraid of the water.
00:45:38 – It's dark, there are no lifeboats.
00:45:43 – How much did you have to pay for the whole trip?
00:45:47 – From Khartoum to Libya, through the Sahara desert, 1000 dollars.
00:45:55 – For the ship it's… From Benghazi, 600 dollars.
00:46:02 – 1600 dollars.
00:46:05 – And the boat is 1600 dollars.
00:46:08 – 3200 dollars.
00:46:11 – That's a lot. – A lot of money.
00:46:17 – What can you do?
00:46:18 – Where do you want to go from here?
00:46:22 – Our ambition is to go to Germany.
00:46:26 – Yes, Germany.
00:46:29 – England.
00:46:33 – I want to go to England. Because I have to…
00:46:40 – …continue my study.
00:46:42 – You want to? – Continue my study.
00:46:44 – What are you studying?
00:46:46 – IT, computers.
00:46:48 – IT, computer applications.
00:46:51 – Computers, IT.
00:46:53 – To get a degree in our country.
00:47:01 – And where do you want to go?
00:47:04 – I need to go to Germany.
00:47:07 – Why Germany? – I need to work, I need to support myself.
00:47:12

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