NOVA Vaccines – Calling the Shots PBS [w/ subs]

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00:00:01 – our lives are linked as never before
00:00:04 – connected everyday in a thousand
00:00:07 – unfeeling ways but sometimes these
00:00:11 – connections can pose an invisible threat
00:00:14 – if the object we touch or the air we
00:00:17 – share carries a dangerous journey you
00:00:22 – don't have to COFF you just have to
00:00:23 – breathe it's the kind of contagion it's
00:00:26 – airborne disease is largely unseen for a
00:00:30 – generation or eternity is tippy-top
00:00:34 – addiction measles is the new york we
00:00:37 – don't see measles in New York it's
00:00:39 – astounding to me that you can have
00:00:41 – people dying of measles in the developed
00:00:43 – world today children are getting sick
00:00:47 – and dying from preventable diseases as
00:00:49 – nervous parents if their children is
00:00:52 – shot you are injecting a substance into
00:00:55 – your child so I think it's very natural
00:00:57 – to wonder whether that substance might
00:01:00 – actually be doing harm there's this new
00:01:03 – much information I don't know who to ask
00:01:05 – Who am I supposed to trust
00:01:09 – in a world of often conflicting
00:01:11 – information parents are seeking what's
00:01:14 – best for their family while doctors
00:01:16 – worry about losing live your job is to
00:01:19 – try and save children's lives and when
00:01:22 – you stand helplessly by and watch them
00:01:23 – die it's uh it gets to you we ask a lot
00:01:26 – of parents we ask them to trust that we
00:01:28 – are recommending the best thing for
00:01:30 – their children that's a big deal the
00:01:34 – science behind vaccines why they work
00:01:37 – how they work and how we decide to
00:01:40 – vaccinate or not know about saying oh my
00:01:44 – gosh I'm afraid and now that's the end
00:01:46 – of the conversation no that's just the
00:01:48 – start of the conversation
00:01:50 – vaccines calling the shots right now on
00:01:54 – Nova
00:01:55 – [Music]
00:02:10 – major funding for Nova is provided by
00:02:13 – the following
00:02:17 – [Music]
00:02:19 – happy healthy children it's what every
00:02:22 – parent wants and in this era of modern
00:02:25 – medicine it's what most parents expect
00:02:30 – many dangerous diseases have all but
00:02:33 – disappeared
00:02:33 – thanks in part to vaccinations in the
00:02:37 – u.s. more than 90% of parents vaccinate
00:02:41 – their children and most follow the
00:02:43 – recommended schedule
00:02:44 – [Music]
00:02:46 – that's up to 28 immunizations in the
00:02:49 – first two years of life to protect
00:02:51 – against 14 different diseases but today
00:02:58 – powerful concerns are in circulation
00:03:02 – [Music]
00:03:04 – I'm concerned about how many vaccine who
00:03:07 – reads have to give our children at once
00:03:12 – so kind of debating whether I will do
00:03:16 – them but I'm paying the age when should
00:03:19 – I have them done there's just so much
00:03:23 – information there I don't I don't know
00:03:24 – who to ask there's no such thing as an
00:03:26 – unbiased source at least 10% of parents
00:03:31 – delay or skip some shots around 1% don't
00:03:35 – vaccinate at all and in some places is
00:03:38 – far higher what's driving some people
00:03:42 – away from vaccine and what are the
00:03:45 – consequences for those who vaccinate and
00:03:49 – those who don't
00:03:51 – [Music]
00:04:10 – Auslan Chan dab is 7 weeks old he was
00:04:14 – due to be vaccinated against whooping
00:04:16 – cough in the next week but the germ has
00:04:18 – gotten to him first
00:04:23 – his mother brought him into the hospital
00:04:25 – two days ago
00:04:26 – what started as a runny nose and slight
00:04:29 – cough has become frightening episodes
00:04:32 – where he's struggling to breathe
00:04:37 – whooping cough or pertussis as it's
00:04:40 – formerly known can be life-threatening
00:04:42 – for babies even cost is caused by really
00:04:45 – nasty bacteria and called for atella
00:04:47 – pertussis and that produces a toxin and
00:04:50 – it attacks the airway and causes a
00:04:53 – really nasty bronchitis and they get
00:04:55 – really sticky thick flame that they
00:04:57 – can't shift and that they try to and
00:04:59 – that causes them to cough
00:05:04 – and the cost needs to be really really
00:05:07 – vigorous but they often it's not very
00:05:09 – effective and then sometimes I stopped
00:05:11 – breathing and if I stop breathing for
00:05:12 – long enough they go red in the face
00:05:14 – first and then sometimes if it's the
00:05:17 – extended period of not breathing they
00:05:19 – can go blue and that can be very very
00:05:20 – frightening half of all infants younger
00:05:26 – than one will be hospitalized about one
00:05:30 – in 100
00:05:31 – dies antibiotics can reduce the chance
00:05:38 – of infecting others but there is no cure
00:05:41 – osan's tiny body must fight the illness
00:05:44 – a generation ago whooping cough was
00:05:56 – rarely seen in developed countries now
00:05:59 – it's back in 2012 there were nearly
00:06:03 – 50,000 cases in the US and 20 death
00:06:07 – [Music]
00:06:10 – babies too young to get the pertussis
00:06:12 – shot may have no protection and because
00:06:16 – the vaccines effectiveness can wear off
00:06:18 – after a few years older children and
00:06:21 – adults without boosters are also
00:06:24 – vulnerable since the beginning of our
00:06:30 – young century there have been outbreaks
00:06:32 – of vaccine-preventable diseases flaring
00:06:36 – up like so many wildfires in 2011 there
00:06:41 – were over 30,000 measles cases across
00:06:44 – Europe although the disease is often
00:06:47 – mild thousands had serious complications
00:06:50 – eight died in 2012 the outbreak
00:06:54 – continued in the United Kingdom in 2013
00:06:58 – it made the leap to the United States
00:07:01 – [Music]
00:07:04 – a young American traveled from London to
00:07:07 – Brooklyn infected with the virus he
00:07:12 – returned home to his tight-knit Orthodox
00:07:14 – community where most people vaccinate
00:07:16 – but he came from a group of families
00:07:19 – strongly opposed to vaccines nasals
00:07:25 – quickly spread through unvaccinated
00:07:27 – families living in the same building and
00:07:32 – then out into the community children
00:07:36 – were hardest hit especially those too
00:07:39 – young to be vaccinated
00:07:41 – [Music]
00:07:47 – first case that I saw is a twelve month
00:07:49 – old girl that came into the office with
00:07:52 – mom because of a rash and I'm looking at
00:07:55 – this challenge examine this child and I
00:07:57 – just can't be tablet such as measles
00:08:00 – that I've never actually seen needles
00:08:02 – but the X see them in textbooks never in
00:08:04 – real life so I was a little taken aback
00:08:09 – 3:43 here perhaps we have another case
00:08:11 – and then the next day another case and
00:08:13 – then another one and just started
00:08:16 – getting overwhelming like wait a second
00:08:20 – the Department of Health tried to stop
00:08:22 – the spread
00:08:23 – the thing about measles is its droplet
00:08:27 – spread so for example you know your
00:08:30 – respiratory secretions of someone coughs
00:08:32 – but it's also airborne so the virus can
00:08:37 – sort of hang out in the air for up to
00:08:40 – two hours one case was traced back to an
00:08:46 – infected person taking the elevator up
00:08:48 – to an apartment shedding the virus along
00:08:50 – the way the measles virus usually
00:08:55 – infects the cells of the throat and
00:08:56 – lungs but it can also survive in the air
00:08:59 – and linger on object you don't have to
00:09:03 – cost you just have to breathe it's the
00:09:05 – worst kind of contagion it's airborne
00:09:08 – ninety percent of people who are exposed
00:09:11 – to the virus and don't have immunity get
00:09:14 – the disease in this instance two hours
00:09:21 – later another unvaccinated person
00:09:23 – entered the same elevator a week or so
00:09:26 – later he too became ill there's a very
00:09:31 – brief encounter you know seconds in an
00:09:34 – elevator it just speaks to how
00:09:37 – infectious measles is it will find those
00:09:41 – people who are unprotected in in a
00:09:44 – community
00:09:46 – in three months more than 3,500 people
00:09:49 – were exposed to the measles virus in the
00:09:52 – Brooklyn area 58 were infected including
00:09:56 – two pregnant women one miscarried all
00:09:59 – were confirmed as unvaccinated at the
00:10:02 – time of infection musil's was declared
00:10:04 – eliminated back in 2000 and so this was
00:10:08 – the largest outbreak since elimination
00:10:11 – if I tell me look we found smallpox
00:10:14 – smallpox was eradicated who no one sees
00:10:17 – measles who sees easels yeah you'll see
00:10:19 – needles in third-world countries in
00:10:21 – other countries this is New York B we
00:10:24 – don't see measles in New York
00:10:26 – [Music]
00:10:31 – around the world pockets of low
00:10:34 – vaccinations are appearing often in
00:10:36 – affluent mainstream communities
00:10:40 – anthropologist Heidi Larsen studies why
00:10:43 – people do or don't place trust in
00:10:46 – vaccines there isn't just a world
00:10:49 – polarized between Pro and anti vaccine
00:10:54 – populations there's 80 plus percent in
00:10:58 – the middle who it's either just a social
00:11:01 – norm it's good for our children and for
00:11:03 – our public health others that are
00:11:05 – starting to question and a certain
00:11:07 – amount of questioning is healthy and
00:11:09 – then there's some that are starting to
00:11:11 – get more anxious and are vulnerable to
00:11:14 – tipping into becoming against vaccines
00:11:16 – if they don't feel like they're getting
00:11:18 – the right information or they're not
00:11:20 – being heard
00:11:22 – [Music]
00:11:25 – Gabriela marksman wants to vaccinate her
00:11:28 – two children but she's chosen not to
00:11:30 – follow the recommended vaccine schedule
00:11:32 – so the planet should be fully vaccinated
00:11:35 – as soon as possible but we're doing one
00:11:38 – vaccine at a time I don't know if that's
00:11:40 – the right way we're nowhere he came up
00:11:43 – with yeah I don't know
00:11:44 – Julia Potts a has a four year old and is
00:11:47 – expecting another child soon she delayed
00:11:50 – vaccinating her oldest till she was
00:11:51 – three I was concerned that her immune
00:11:54 – system could handle it we just waited my
00:11:57 – son and hers they're not vaccinated yet
00:12:00 – and my older ones don't have boosters
00:12:02 – Mariana castoffs Key has four children
00:12:05 – she vaccinated at first but then one
00:12:08 – child had a seizure so this is really
00:12:10 – worrying about reaction and I am worried
00:12:13 – about the disease's so in essence you
00:12:16 – really in America children must be
00:12:19 – vaccinated before they start
00:12:21 – kindergarten but the required shots vary
00:12:24 – from state to state and most allow for
00:12:26 – exemptions based on personal or
00:12:28 – religious beliefs here in California
00:12:31 – almost three percent of children are
00:12:33 – exempt and in some schools it's more
00:12:36 – than thirty percent you might have a lot
00:12:38 – of friends don't vaccinate at all and if
00:12:40 – you say vaccine around them they look at
00:12:43 – you like you are literally well you know
00:12:44 – like you are poisoning your child on the
00:12:47 – other hand you have parents that they
00:12:50 – can't even understand why this is even a
00:12:54 – question nobody is willing to really
00:12:56 – have a conversation with you and discuss
00:12:58 – what's the severe reaction is it okay to
00:13:01 – have a seizure I would really like to
00:13:05 – know what the real risks are
00:13:09 – it okay to question vaccines of course
00:13:12 – it is at the start of a conversation
00:13:14 – that says this is something worthy of
00:13:16 – being concerned about decision
00:13:19 – scientists Brian Zigman Fisher studies
00:13:22 – how we think about risk
00:13:24 – he's based at the University of Michigan
00:13:27 – where in this hall in 1955 the first
00:13:30 – polio vaccine was announced 50 years ago
00:13:34 – you asked any parent any grandparent
00:13:37 – about polio about measles about
00:13:41 – pertussis and they knew cases it was
00:13:45 – part of their daily existence what's
00:13:48 – changed now is that we've done such a
00:13:51 – good job of vaccinating most not all
00:13:56 – most people in our communities that they
00:13:59 – are rare I have never seen it why should
00:14:01 – I be concerned about this
00:14:03 – [Music]
00:14:06 – the history of vaccines is clear if you
00:14:09 – start to decrease vaccine immunization
00:14:11 – rates you start to see the disease's
00:14:13 – reemerge it's a history that we don't
00:14:16 – seem to learn from Paul Offit is an
00:14:19 – infectious disease expert he helped
00:14:22 – invent a vaccine to protect against
00:14:24 – rotavirus disease which kills hundreds
00:14:26 – of thousands of children worldwide as a
00:14:29 – pediatrician he's witnessed firsthand
00:14:31 – children dying from preventable diseases
00:14:34 – I guess we all have our biases mine is
00:14:38 – that I work in a hospital and so for
00:14:40 – example in 1991 in the city of
00:14:42 – Philadelphia there was a massive measles
00:14:44 – epidemic of the nine children who died
00:14:46 – during that 1991 epidemic seven of who
00:14:49 – died in our hospital so we had to stand
00:14:51 – by and watch while we try to support
00:14:53 – them and you know as doctors your job is
00:14:55 – to try and save children's lives and
00:14:57 – when you stand helplessly by and watch
00:14:59 – them die it's uh it's um it just it gets
00:15:03 – to you
00:15:05 – [Music]
00:15:07 – human history is scarred with stories of
00:15:10 – deadly germs destroying life 500 years
00:15:14 – ago about 1 in 3 children died before
00:15:17 – the age of 5 but then we began to fight
00:15:21 – back
00:15:23 – [Music]
00:15:26 – surprisingly vaccinations evolved from a
00:15:29 – type of traditional medicine at least
00:15:31 – 1,000 years ago in India when a wave of
00:15:35 – smallpox approached to town there are
00:15:37 – tales of people doing something
00:15:39 – extraordinary they lined up to actually
00:15:42 – apply the disease brahmin healers would
00:15:48 – take a cloth and rub the person's
00:15:50 – underarm then they would scratch the
00:15:55 – skin just enough to draw blood finally
00:15:59 – they would apply dried smallpox gas
00:16:01 – taken from patients who had survived the
00:16:04 – disease most people would get sick but
00:16:07 – recover from that point on they were
00:16:10 – protected over 1000 years ago these
00:16:14 – Brahmins had observed one of the basic
00:16:17 – principles of immunization that you
00:16:19 – rarely get infected twice how to give
00:16:23 – people credit I mean they got it right
00:16:25 – they knew that there was something going
00:16:26 – on that protected you they just had no
00:16:28 – idea what it was or why
00:16:31 – fast forward around 700 years to Europe
00:16:35 – where over 400 thousand people were
00:16:38 – dying from smallpox every year an
00:16:42 – English mother Lady Mary Wortley Montagu
00:16:45 – wrote of seeing Turkish women
00:16:47 – deliberately inoculating their children
00:16:49 – with small dogs using a method similar
00:16:53 – to the bran the children played together
00:16:55 – all the rest of the day then the fever
00:17:00 – begins to seize them and they keep their
00:17:02 – beds two days very seldom three and in
00:17:06 – eight days times there as well as before
00:17:09 – their illness
00:17:11 – Lady Mary successfully inoculated her
00:17:15 – own son and introduced the technique to
00:17:19 – England people didn't understand why it
00:17:21 – worked and it was never risk-free but
00:17:25 – the smallpox death rate dropped from
00:17:27 – around 30 percent to two percent seventy
00:17:33 – years later an English doctor named
00:17:35 – Edward Jenner took the next vital step
00:17:39 – he demonstrated the deliberate infection
00:17:42 – with a mild non-fatal disease called cow
00:17:45 – pox would protect against smallpox
00:17:48 – he called his technique vaccination from
00:17:52 – Vaca latin for cow
00:17:54 – Edward Jenner's observation caused us to
00:17:57 – eliminate a disease from the face of the
00:17:59 – earth disease that killed as many as 500
00:18:01 – million people amazing right
00:18:04 – but as vaccinations made smallpox
00:18:07 – disappear a curious thing happened
00:18:09 – stories began to circulate of the
00:18:12 – dangers of the vaccination itself once
00:18:16 – Jenner's vaccine was used widely not
00:18:19 – surprisingly people became concerned for
00:18:22 – the same reason that people are
00:18:23 – concerned today which is the adults or
00:18:25 – children were being inoculated with the
00:18:26 – biological fluid they didn't understand
00:18:28 – they knew that it came from a cow and
00:18:30 – that concerned them and people I think
00:18:33 – were not sophisticated enough to know
00:18:36 – that a cow pox virus wouldn't make you
00:18:38 – become a cow but that was their fear you
00:18:40 – could argue that the same fears are
00:18:42 – alive today our understanding of
00:18:47 – vaccines is something that you can
00:18:48 – actually evoke fear in us once we
00:18:51 – acknowledge that a vaccine by its very
00:18:54 – nature is going to make us afraid then
00:18:57 – we have to ask the next question which
00:18:59 – is well why should I be doing it to
00:19:04 – understand how vaccines work we first
00:19:06 – need to understand immunity
00:19:09 – so Gustav nozzle is a world-renowned
00:19:12 – immunologist immunity is a wonderful
00:19:17 – natural defense system of the human body
00:19:20 – it depends on the white cells of the
00:19:23 – blood to rapidly wrap directly give you
00:19:27 – protective against the disease
00:19:29 – [Music]
00:19:30 – imagine millions of immune cells such as
00:19:33 – white blood cells all on the lookout for
00:19:36 – specific germs if they spot something
00:19:39 – foreign like flu they prepare to fight
00:19:43 – bring that flu bug into your body the
00:19:46 – white cells like to moving on it and
00:19:48 – thanks give a big angry
00:19:51 – the immune cells armed and then
00:19:55 – replicate creating an army of clone then
00:20:01 – launching powerful germ seeking agents
00:20:04 – called antibodies they tag the germs for
00:20:07 – disposal
00:20:08 – [Music]
00:20:10 – once the germ is removed the immune army
00:20:13 – disbands but they leave behind memory
00:20:17 – cells their job is to remember the
00:20:21 – invader and to sound the alarm if it
00:20:23 – ever appears again when we're born we're
00:20:29 – not yet very mature in terms of our
00:20:33 – immune system so if it infection strikes
00:20:36 – a little infant then there's a great
00:20:38 – vulnerability it's the tiniest ones that
00:20:42 – need the most protection the recommended
00:20:45 – vaccine schedule is designed to close
00:20:47 – this window of vulnerability some people
00:20:50 – believe that you don't need to vaccinate
00:20:53 – yourselves because you've got such a
00:20:55 – beautiful and good immune system they
00:20:58 – forget that these bugs that surround us
00:21:01 – have been killed
00:21:02 – evolving with us sometimes for millions
00:21:06 – of years and in some respects they're
00:21:08 – cleverer than us they have worked out
00:21:11 – ways of a vain immune system unless you
00:21:14 – prion it so putting it bluntly the white
00:21:18 – cells might not be fast enough or smart
00:21:20 – enough if we haven't whipped them along
00:21:23 – by a prior immunization
00:21:26 – a vaccine in effect send in an imposter
00:21:30 – a weakened or dead part of the germ just
00:21:33 – enough to be recognized the immune cells
00:21:38 – mount the defense because the threat is
00:21:47 – low they quickly defend but the
00:21:50 – all-important memory cells have been
00:21:52 – created the immune system is now
00:21:55 – prepared for the real germ to arm our
00:22:02 – immune system against multiple germs
00:22:04 – different vaccines can be combined this
00:22:07 – reduces the number of shots we need and
00:22:10 – studies show it to be safe what we have
00:22:13 – seen in the industrialized world
00:22:15 – is essentially all of the major
00:22:18 – epidemics they've vanished mums today
00:22:22 – have every expectation that their
00:22:25 – beautiful little baby will live and not
00:22:28 – be polished off by de faria by tetanus
00:22:32 – even occasionally by meals now that is
00:22:35 – the transformation in young lives that
00:22:38 – vaccines are brought vaccines do more
00:22:42 – than protect individuals they can
00:22:44 – protect entire communities
00:22:49 – the 2013 measles outbreak in New York
00:22:52 – hit hard and fast but remains within the
00:22:55 – Brooklyn area why didn't it spread to
00:23:00 – the other eight million people in the
00:23:01 – city the virus was in circulation even
00:23:10 – though it often wasn't obvious and it
00:23:14 – was being carried by people who often
00:23:15 – had no idea they were infected
00:23:18 – [Music]
00:23:24 – but the vast majority of people who came
00:23:28 – into contact with the virus had
00:23:30 – protection they were vaccinated there's
00:23:38 – two things that matter for whether or
00:23:40 – not I'm going to get sick one is if I
00:23:44 – bump into somebody who has the disease
00:23:46 – am i protected against it or not but the
00:23:50 – other piece and the more important piece
00:23:53 – is the chance I will bump into somebody
00:23:56 – in the first place who has this disease
00:24:00 – and you can think of this as these sort
00:24:02 – of concentric circles of people and the
00:24:05 – less the disease exists in my circle or
00:24:09 – the next circle or the next circle the
00:24:11 – safer I am it's known as herd immunity
00:24:16 – and it protects everyone including young
00:24:20 – babies and people who can't be
00:24:22 – vaccinated for medical reasons and in
00:24:26 – New York it worked if we didn't have the
00:24:29 – high vaccination levels that we do you
00:24:32 – know in New York City and even in this
00:24:34 – community I can promise you we would
00:24:37 – have had hundreds if not thousands of
00:24:39 – cases but this protection is fragile for
00:24:44 – highly infectious diseases like measles
00:24:46 – we need ninety five percent of the
00:24:48 – community vaccinated for herd immunity
00:24:50 – to hold if the rate drops even just a
00:24:54 – few percent herd immunity can collapse
00:24:58 – in France when measles vaccination rates
00:25:01 – were around 89% the impact was dramatic
00:25:08 – [Music]
00:25:12 – in 2007 there were around 40 cases of
00:25:16 – measles across France then in 2008 a
00:25:21 – ten-year-old girl returned from holiday
00:25:23 – in Austria she went back to school and
00:25:27 – played with some friends several days
00:25:31 – later the girls became ill the measles
00:25:35 – infection spread from district to
00:25:37 – district inspecting the susceptible
00:25:39 – population in 2011 there were almost
00:25:43 – 15,000 cases at least six people died
00:25:49 – it's astounding to me that in this day
00:25:52 – and age that you can have people dying
00:25:54 – of measles in the developed world so for
00:25:59 – people who say this doesn't happen
00:26:01 – anymore we have the proof it's a
00:26:05 – combination of people's risk tolerances
00:26:08 – low and yet a distorted notion of how
00:26:12 – invulnerable they are that they would
00:26:15 – never get certain diseases and if they
00:26:18 – did they'd be fine low vaccination rate
00:26:25 – can also be fueled by mistrust and
00:26:28 – amplified by frightening with doriga the
00:26:32 – stories that circulate go viral are the
00:26:35 – stories that have that emotional power
00:26:38 – and what's the most emotional story the
00:26:41 – story of some child being hurt Luke
00:26:53 – Philbin was born a healthy normal baby
00:26:58 – when he was six months old his mother
00:27:00 – took him for his scheduled vaccinations
00:27:04 – 17 hours later Luke had a seizure he
00:27:08 – went into this full violent convulsion
00:27:11 – he's fussing at the mouth he was he was
00:27:14 – just completely shaking and and then I
00:27:18 – thought of the Sun without him – not to
00:27:19 – us rang up ambulance and just as they
00:27:23 – entered the house he just stopped and
00:27:25 – went completely lifeless and turned blue
00:27:33 – they gave him some oxygen and I said we
00:27:36 – need to take him tougher all right now
00:27:38 – the doctors explained the vaccine had
00:27:41 – caused a fever which had triggered
00:27:43 – Luke's seizure ten days later and I got
00:27:46 – another call that woke from and then
00:27:48 – he'd had another seizure that was when
00:27:51 – it really sort of dawned on us I think
00:27:52 – that something really serious was going
00:27:54 – on
00:27:56 – Luke seizures continued constantly
00:28:00 – you're going okay okay I went to the
00:28:13 – internet and I was searching everywhere
00:28:17 – just to find similar stories for that
00:28:21 – six month period as far as we were
00:28:23 – concerned it was vaccine related and
00:28:24 – blaming ourselves up to that point
00:28:26 – really why did we do this in
00:28:28 – Stephenville mix it'd be fine after many
00:28:31 – months of searching the world for
00:28:33 – answers they discovered the clues to
00:28:35 – Luke's illness lay on the other side of
00:28:38 – Melbourne
00:28:45 – Ingrid chevre leads a team of Australian
00:28:48 – neuroscientist studying rare cases like
00:28:51 – Luke's cases where prolonged seizures
00:28:54 – happen soon after vaccination the road
00:29:00 – it's really important that it occurred
00:29:03 – so close to his vaccination and this is
00:29:06 – really what led to the thinking that
00:29:07 – there was a vaccine in kept allopathy
00:29:09 – and i say so called because everyone
00:29:12 – associated that the timing of the
00:29:15 – vaccination and the timing of the first
00:29:17 – seizure meant that the vaccine was
00:29:19 – causative yeah perfect boy for six years
00:29:23 – the team studied the patients carefully
00:29:28 – they discovered that the histories and
00:29:31 – symptoms matched those of a rare form of
00:29:34 – epilepsy called Dravet Syndrome
00:29:36 – Trevor syndrome is a very severe
00:29:38 – epilepsy beginning in infancy and it
00:29:40 – occurs in a previously normal and a will
00:29:43 – baby and their development slows down
00:29:46 – for their hip normal development and
00:29:48 – then between one to two years of ages of
00:29:50 – plateaus and by far the majority of
00:29:53 – children with dravet syndrome have
00:29:54 – intellectual disability dravet syndrome
00:29:57 – is caused by mutations in a particular
00:30:00 – genes called SC n1a which impact key
00:30:04 – pathways in the brain
00:30:05 – these are usually new mutations not
00:30:09 – something passed on from the child's
00:30:10 – parents in 2006 the team made a key
00:30:14 – discovery the majority of the children
00:30:17 – who had prolonged seizures after
00:30:19 – vaccination also had a mutation for
00:30:22 – dravet syndrome the gene the ischium
00:30:25 – when a mutation is the cause of the
00:30:27 – dravet syndrome and the vaccine is at
00:30:30 – most a trigger for a seizure and anybody
00:30:33 – with epilepsy has triggers for their
00:30:35 – seizures they're not causative dead
00:30:36 – triggers so you can have genes causing
00:30:39 – your epilepsy that triggers our commonly
00:30:42 – sleep deprivation stress and in this
00:30:44 – situation vaccination is a trigger
00:30:48 – when Luke was tested they discovered he
00:30:52 – too had reveille syndrome good boy
00:30:55 – today Luke's parents know that any fever
00:30:58 – can trigger his seizures whether from a
00:31:01 – toothache or from a vaccine they also
00:31:07 – understand that Luke was going to get
00:31:09 – this condition anyway we've chosen not
00:31:13 – to vaccinating further because we know
00:31:16 – it was a trigger you know we rely on
00:31:20 – other people having their kids back
00:31:23 – together to protect Luke
00:31:29 – [Music]
00:31:31 – Luc's type of epilepsy is rare you're
00:31:35 – more likely to be struck by lightning
00:31:37 – yet his story is an example of how a
00:31:39 – vaccine can appear to cause harm the
00:31:43 – majority of children have no side
00:31:45 – effects from a vaccine some may
00:31:48 – experience slight swelling at the
00:31:49 – injection site or develop a fever a
00:31:53 – normal immune response
00:31:55 – occasionally children can have a seizure
00:31:57 – after a vaccine but this is usually a
00:32:00 – brief one-time event with no damage but
00:32:03 – [Music]
00:32:07 – there are extremely rare cases where a
00:32:11 – vaccine has done hard cases like David
00:32:16 – Salomon I contracted polio from the
00:32:19 – vaccinations affected my right leg my
00:32:22 – muscles atrophied and where leg brace
00:32:30 – in 1990 when David was six months old
00:32:33 – his parents took him for his oral polio
00:32:35 – vaccine within 24 hours he had a fever
00:32:39 – and a rash we took him to the
00:32:42 – pediatrician
00:32:43 – hey basically said oh it's nothing you
00:32:46 – know I mean I just you know probably a
00:32:48 – little reaction but don't worry about it
00:32:50 – in high fever it just seemed to get
00:32:52 – worse and suddenly you notice that he
00:32:55 – wasn't even able to move his lower
00:32:57 – extremities
00:32:58 – David's paralysis was eventually tracked
00:33:01 – back to the vaccine and to a series of
00:33:04 – events that occurred over fifty years
00:33:07 – ago in the all-out fight against polio
00:33:10 – led by the National Foundation for
00:33:12 – infantile paralysis
00:33:13 – there were many years of struggle and
00:33:15 – heartbreak in the 1950s tens of
00:33:19 – thousands of American children were
00:33:20 – paralyzed by polio and thousands of them
00:33:23 – died it was one of the most feared
00:33:26 – diseases of the 20th century then in
00:33:30 – 1955 came an announcement that changed
00:33:33 – history a major medical hurdle was
00:33:36 – crossed with the discovery by dr. Jonas
00:33:38 – Salk will the anti polio vaccine thanks
00:33:41 – to the injectable Salk vaccine and later
00:33:44 – the oral Sabin vaccine polio rates
00:33:47 – plummeted by 99% the disease largely
00:33:52 – vanished from the US but the oral polio
00:33:55 – vaccine carried a risk there was a small
00:33:58 – chance that the weakened virus within it
00:34:00 – could mutate and actually call it polio
00:34:03 – a risk of around 1 in 2.4 million doses
00:34:08 – ok David come on down by 1994 the only
00:34:13 – cases of polio in the US were those
00:34:15 – caused by the oral vaccine itself I want
00:34:19 – to show you something we failed to ask
00:34:22 – the question does it pass the
00:34:25 – risk-benefit ratio test and obviously if
00:34:30 – the only case is a polio you have in a
00:34:33 – country come from the very vaccine
00:34:35 – designed to prevent it it doesn't pass
00:34:38 – and it should
00:34:42 – the Congress has oversight over CDC over
00:34:46 – David's father lobbied to have the
00:34:48 – vaccine changed and in the year 2000
00:34:51 – across the u.s. the oral vaccine was
00:34:55 – replaced by a safer injectable version
00:34:58 – this vaccine had a problem and it was a
00:35:01 – better one and we fixed it the system
00:35:05 – worked too many had to suffer but the
00:35:08 – system worked
00:35:11 – I'm not against vaccinations I'm Pro
00:35:13 – vaccinations we had thousands of people
00:35:17 – contracting polio prior to the
00:35:19 – vaccination we came out with the
00:35:21 – vaccinations and that number decreased
00:35:23 – significantly
00:35:24 – so less people are getting sick less
00:35:26 – people are getting affected and that's a
00:35:29 – good thing changing and adapting
00:35:31 – vaccines as new evidence emerges is a
00:35:34 – vital and ongoing process but sometimes
00:35:37 – vaccines are blamed for causing harm
00:35:40 – when there's no scientific proof
00:35:45 – [Music]
00:35:51 – autism is one of the most baffling
00:35:53 – health issues of our generation
00:35:59 – around 1 in 70 children are diagnosed
00:36:02 – with autism spectrum disorder in the
00:36:04 – u.s. today it's not a single disease but
00:36:08 – rather a complex web of disorders marked
00:36:11 – by communication difficulties and
00:36:12 – repetitive behaviors the question is
00:36:16 – what causes it from bear rubber the
00:36:20 – teddy bear really this beautiful girl is
00:36:23 – my daughter Jody she's 16 and she has
00:36:27 – autism
00:36:28 – and now she's in residential placement
00:36:30 – and I'm here today as I am every weekend
00:36:34 – visiting her highlight of my week as a
00:36:38 – parent I would love to have a better
00:36:40 – understanding of why she behaves the way
00:36:42 – she was aimed or why we have to go
00:36:44 – through the same rituals and routines
00:36:46 – every single time ro we need to
00:36:49 – understand so that we can help her
00:36:52 – Allison singer channeled her need for
00:36:54 – answers becoming an autism advocate
00:36:58 – raising funds for research Alison
00:37:02 – noticed Jody's symptoms around the same
00:37:04 – time as her daughter had her
00:37:06 – vaccinations so she like many parents
00:37:08 – suspected there could be a link clearly
00:37:12 – children were getting more vaccines than
00:37:14 – we had gotten when we were born and more
00:37:17 – and more children were being diagnosed
00:37:18 – with autism so I thought that yes this
00:37:21 – was an area that we needed to look at
00:37:24 – and see if there was a relationship
00:37:25 – between vaccines and autism in 1998 an
00:37:31 – English doctor Andrew Wakefield argued
00:37:34 – there was a link between autism and MMR
00:37:36 – the measles mumps and rubella vaccine
00:37:39 – his study of 12 children was published
00:37:42 – in a major medical journal The Lancet
00:37:44 – when I read that I was taken aback we
00:37:48 – have to look at this unfortunately those
00:37:51 – are studies that can be done
00:37:54 – a search began to see if a link between
00:37:58 – autism and the MMR vaccine could be
00:38:01 – confirmed scientists examine the medical
00:38:05 – records of hundreds of thousands of
00:38:07 – children but study after study revealed
00:38:10 – that whether the children were
00:38:11 – vaccinated or not the rates of autism
00:38:14 – were the same
00:38:15 – no one could replicate andrew wakefield
00:38:17 – findings eventually that study was shown
00:38:21 – to be fraudulent and it was withdrawn
00:38:24 – similar studies failed to find any link
00:38:27 – between autism and a mercury-based
00:38:29 – preservative called thimerosal still
00:38:32 – other studies failed to find any link
00:38:34 – between autism and the number or timing
00:38:37 – of vaccines so at this point it's not
00:38:42 – like we have one study or two studies or
00:38:46 – five studies we have dozens of studies I
00:38:50 – think we were right to look at whether
00:38:52 – vaccines might be a cause of autism but
00:38:55 – there comes a point where there is so
00:38:57 – much evidence none of which shows any
00:39:01 – link between vaccines and autism that
00:39:04 – you have to say enough
00:39:13 – today scientists like Daniel jesh wind
00:39:16 – are making dramatic progress in finding
00:39:18 – the real causes of autism the story
00:39:22 – that's emerging is written in our DNA
00:39:25 – it's really extraordinary identifying
00:39:28 – the genetic causes is really important
00:39:30 – because it gives us an anchor a place to
00:39:33 – start
00:39:34 – we know autism can run in families but
00:39:38 – it took a revolution in DNA sequencing
00:39:41 – technology to allow scientists to
00:39:43 – compare thousands of genes in people
00:39:46 – with and without autism and to pinpoint
00:39:49 – specific mutation some of these gene
00:39:52 – mutations are inherited but many are new
00:39:55 – as in dravet syndrome many of these
00:39:59 – genes play a role in brain development
00:40:01 – and in the way brain cells communicate
00:40:04 – that can give us enormous clues about
00:40:07 – the onset of autism where it begins how
00:40:10 – it begins and hopefully how to treat it
00:40:13 – scientists are also investigating
00:40:16 – environmental factors but genes are a
00:40:18 – major part of the story and they've led
00:40:21 – scientists to an extraordinary new
00:40:24 – insight that autism begins in the womb
00:40:26 – the genetics are pointing to early
00:40:29 – developmental processes so somewhere
00:40:31 – between 10 and 24 weeks or so of
00:40:33 – gestation we don't know everything that
00:40:37 – causes autism at this point but all of
00:40:40 – the genetics is pointing to fetal origin
00:40:45 – so as autism reveals its secrets it's
00:40:48 – increasingly clear that childhood
00:40:50 – vaccines cannot be the call so whenever
00:40:55 – I look at her I'm extremely happy and
00:40:57 – from paused it was a pretty girl I'm a
00:41:00 – pretty girl yes there are postures we
00:41:02 – can make pasta but um da da da da you go
00:41:10 – just as the underlying causes of autism
00:41:13 – are being illuminated there's another
00:41:15 – controversy brewing this time around a
00:41:18 – vaccines that prevents cancer cervical
00:41:22 – cancer is a horrible way to die severe
00:41:25 – reactions up to an including death
00:41:26 – hazards and she suffered from mental
00:41:28 – retardation my chances of dying the
00:41:31 – vaccine protects against a sexually
00:41:33 – transmitted disease were mongering
00:41:35 – ignorance vaccine to protect against HPV
00:41:38 – human papillomavirus has generated an
00:41:41 – unusual amount of publicity and
00:41:44 – confusion
00:41:47 – HPV is the most common cancer causing
00:41:50 – virus on earth around 80 percent of
00:41:53 – Americans will catch it at some stage in
00:41:56 – their lives for most it's harmless but
00:42:00 – for some it causes cancer
00:42:03 – every year over 25,000 hpv-related
00:42:07 – cancers occur in the u.s. many are
00:42:10 – cervical cancers and female or throat
00:42:13 – cancers in males so people often say
00:42:15 – they wish they could prevent cancer this
00:42:18 – vaccine prevents cancer who doesn't want
00:42:21 – that for their child ami Mittleman is a
00:42:26 – mother of three she's also an adolescent
00:42:30 – pediatrician involved in assessing the
00:42:33 – safety and effectiveness of the HPV
00:42:35 – vaccine she vaccinated her children as
00:42:43 – soon as it became available I am a
00:42:46 – little confused by the drama around this
00:42:49 – vaccine to me this is a life-saving
00:42:51 – vaccine I can't imagine not giving it to
00:42:53 – my children on the other hand I think
00:42:58 – sometimes we expect parents to have all
00:43:03 – of the data that we have as physicians
00:43:05 – and that's not really fair so our job as
00:43:09 – providers is to make sure we separate
00:43:12 – the issues and bring forth the important
00:43:14 – ones that should be considered ok
00:43:18 – just one is either for the patient the
00:43:21 – key is to vaccinate boys and girls
00:43:23 – before they're ever exposed to the virus
00:43:25 – that is before they become sexually
00:43:28 – active it's recommended for every boy
00:43:32 – and girl at age 11 and 12 this is just
00:43:35 – like everything else you want to get the
00:43:36 – vaccine before you have a risk of
00:43:38 – getting the disease so that it protects
00:43:40 – you around sixty million doses of the
00:43:42 – HPV vaccine have been given in the u.s.
00:43:46 – like all vaccines it's carefully
00:43:49 – monitored for safety there have been
00:43:52 – claims of rare serious reactions even
00:43:55 – death
00:43:56 – these have been carefully investigated
00:43:59 – there are no serious adverse events
00:44:02 – associated with this vaccine in a causal
00:44:04 – way this is one of the safest vaccines
00:44:07 – that we have to offer and it prevents
00:44:10 – cancer
00:44:11 – oh for some the link between the HPV
00:44:15 – vaccine and s** is a concern I have
00:44:18 – reservations about the HPV vaccine it's
00:44:20 – for a sexually transmitted disease and I
00:44:24 – believe in teaching abstinence and
00:44:28 – chastity this and studies show that any
00:44:31 – intimate contact perhaps even deep
00:44:34 – kissing can spread the virus
00:44:37 – and getting the vaccine does not mean
00:44:40 – people start having s** earlier the s**
00:44:44 – part the way in which you get the target
00:44:48 – disease is irrelevant we don't talk
00:44:52 – about diphtheria and how you get to
00:44:55 – Syria before we give the Tdap vaccine
00:44:57 – how they're getting exposed is
00:45:00 – irrelevant to the ability to prevent the
00:45:02 – disease I want her to make a decision
00:45:05 – when she is an age again you know how I
00:45:09 – feel about I strongly recommend it I try
00:45:11 – to prevented these whenever I can you
00:45:13 – know so we can definitely get you the
00:45:14 – flu vaccine today and we'll keep talking
00:45:16 – about the HPV vaccine is okay with you
00:45:18 – patients come to us asking for
00:45:20 – reassurance about these decisions and if
00:45:23 – they don't get strong reassurance it's
00:45:26 – pretty easy to put it off until the next
00:45:28 – visit or the next visit or I'll think
00:45:30 – about it maybe the next time we're not
00:45:34 – talking about a cold that's going to go
00:45:35 – away this is cancer and this is what
00:45:38 – we've been working for for years our
00:45:40 – ways to prevent cancer on the other side
00:45:44 – of Oklahoma City one woman knows only
00:45:46 – too well the cost of not being able to
00:45:49 – prevent her daughter of cancer Jennifer
00:45:53 – was 37 years old and she died from
00:45:57 – cervical cancer she had cancer in her
00:46:02 – liver in her lungs
00:46:04 – in her right hip and her left femur and
00:46:11 – so she died of the effects of the cancer
00:46:14 – which was spreading through her body if
00:46:20 – there was something I could have done to
00:46:21 – protect her of course I would have
00:46:25 – the idea now that parents can vaccinate
00:46:29 – their children to prevent most cervical
00:46:33 – cancers in order to swish that had been
00:46:36 – available to us to have changed the
00:46:40 – course of Jennifer's life it just makes
00:46:46 – me very very sad you know as a mother
00:46:57 – and as a pediatrician I think one of the
00:47:01 – biggest fears that I have and I've
00:47:03 – always had is that one of my children
00:47:08 – will get sick and I can't do anything
00:47:10 – about it or one of my patients will get
00:47:13 – sick and I can't do anything about it
00:47:15 – and to be able to prevent that is such a
00:47:19 – gift
00:47:20 – [Music]
00:47:25 – vaccines deliver a remarkable but often
00:47:28 – invisible gift protecting against
00:47:30 – diseases we may never see around us yet
00:47:34 – for parents it can be hard not to worry
00:47:37 – about potential risk
00:47:40 – [Music]
00:47:42 – all of our life is surrounded by the
00:47:45 – risk of every day I walk across the
00:47:48 – street
00:47:48 – I could be hit by a car we live with
00:47:56 – risk because it's part of what we all
00:47:58 – face in terms of getting what we want I
00:48:00 – want to come to the football game I want
00:48:02 – to have a fun day with my family and
00:48:04 – those benefits are worth putting myself
00:48:08 – at risk many people worry about the
00:48:18 – risks of serious adverse events or
00:48:20 – side-effects from vaccines how risky is
00:48:23 – that really like any medications
00:48:27 – vaccines are not risk-free but the risk
00:48:30 – of a severe side effect is extremely
00:48:32 – small for a life-threatening event like
00:48:36 – a severe allergic reaction it's around 1
00:48:39 – in 1 million 10 times the number of
00:48:42 – people in this stadium these kinds of
00:48:45 – serious reactions are really that rare
00:48:48 – yet parents may worry about side effects
00:48:51 – even when they are rare what we think
00:48:55 – about is what's going to happen to my
00:48:57 – kid what if my kid is the one kid who
00:49:02 – happens to have this happen to them one
00:49:06 – of the things we have to remember in
00:49:08 – medicine is that it's a balancing act
00:49:10 – really everything is measuring risks
00:49:13 – versus benefits this is a true of
00:49:15 – vaccines as well there are risks there
00:49:19 – are benefits the risks happen to be
00:49:21 – miniscule of serious science the
00:49:24 – benefits are enormous vaccines protect
00:49:28 – us individually in case the person next
00:49:31 – to us is carrying a dangerous germ and
00:49:34 – the higher the overall vaccination rate
00:49:38 – protection for everyone in 1955 this is
00:49:56 – where dr. Thomas Francis announced to
00:49:59 – the world the outcome of the polio
00:50:01 – vaccine trials he told the world that
00:50:04 – the vaccine was safe effective and
00:50:07 – potent
00:50:08 – I love having this conversation here in
00:50:10 – this room because what we really need to
00:50:13 – do is to get back into the mindset of
00:50:16 – the people who were sitting here in 1955
00:50:19 – they looked at the vaccine trials and
00:50:21 – said is this a better choice not a
00:50:25 – perfect choice a better choice then what
00:50:31 – we face if we do not vaccinate because
00:50:36 – the less often we vaccinate the more our
00:50:39 – lives will be touched
00:50:41 – perhaps slowly at first but eventually
00:50:43 – more and more by diseases that we once
00:50:46 – thought were gone
00:50:53 – baby Ogron spent 17 days in the hospital
00:50:57 – with whooping cough no one knows who
00:51:00 – spread the deadly germ to him only that
00:51:02 – he was one of the lucky ones now six
00:51:06 – months old he's recovering well across
00:51:12 – America and the world outbreaks of
00:51:14 – vaccine-preventable diseases continue to
00:51:17 – be reported in Michigan and several
00:51:20 – other states personal exemption rates
00:51:22 – have risen above 5% some states like
00:51:26 – California have passed laws making it
00:51:28 – more difficult for parents to opt out
00:51:32 – wherever they live parents continue to
00:51:35 – weigh what's best for their children and
00:51:38 – health officials continue to worry about
00:51:41 – saving life we're all in this together
00:51:43 – we all inhabit this planet together we
00:51:46 – all make decisions that affect not only
00:51:48 – us but others and I would like to
00:51:51 – believe that there is something in us
00:51:53 – that allows us to see it that way
00:51:58 – [Music]
00:52:00 – [Applause]
00:52:04 – [Music]
00:52:27 – this nova program is available on DVD to
00:52:30 – order visit shoppbs.org or call 1-800
00:52:34 – play PBS nova is also available for
00:52:37 – download on itunes
00:52:39 – [Music]
00:52:55 – [Applause]
00:52:58 – [Music]
00:53:07 – [Music]

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