Napoleon PBS Documentary 2 Of 4 [w/ subs]

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00:00:11 – [Music]
00:00:26 – [Applause]
00:00:45 – on may 5th 1796 bonaparte led his
00:00:49 – victorious armies into Malaya he was
00:00:53 – greeted by the Milanese II as a heroic
00:00:55 – Liberator
00:00:56 – the general who freed them from their
00:00:58 – Austrian rulers we come to break your
00:01:02 – chains
00:01:03 – Bonaparte Cathay our only quarrel is
00:01:07 – with the tyrants live in slavery
00:01:08 – [Applause]
00:01:09 – [Music]
00:01:17 – he was more than a general now he had
00:01:20 – made himself the head of a provisional
00:01:22 – Italian government with an exalted sense
00:01:25 – of his own destiny he was determined to
00:01:28 – follow his star to the heights of power
00:01:32 – break men become great because they have
00:01:35 – been able to master luck Bonaparte set
00:01:38 – but the vulgar call luck is a
00:01:41 – characteristic of genius
00:01:44 – [Music]
00:01:49 – I shall be frantic if I do not have a
00:01:59 – letter from you tonight bonaparte wrote
00:02:01 – josephine bonaparte desperately wanted
00:02:04 – his wife to join him in Italy but
00:02:07 – Josephine refused to leave Paris she was
00:02:13 – spending her time with a dapper young
00:02:15 – army lieutenant I told that burrial
00:02:19 – cheating on Napoleon with a young
00:02:21 – officer infinitely a more seductive than
00:02:24 – Napoleon Edna thought I live f*****
00:02:26 – she's not modeled upon good Napoleon
00:02:30 – well I felt it was so new yet only
00:02:32 – deadly she's afraid she'll be born in
00:02:34 – Italy because in Paris at the life of
00:02:36 – parties a life of luxury
00:02:38 – [Music]
00:02:41 – finally after weeks of Bonaparte's
00:02:43 – pleading letters Josephine left Paris
00:02:46 – for Italy she wept wrote one witness as
00:02:50 – though she were going to a torture
00:02:52 – chamber she arrived at Milan sir
00:03:00 – Boulogne palace to find that her husband
00:03:02 – had filled it with flowers in her honor
00:03:05 – there they spent the third night of
00:03:08 – their married life together
00:03:11 – after 48 hours
00:03:13 – Bonaparte went back to doing what he did
00:03:15 – best making war the Austrian army with
00:03:22 – fresh reinforcements was still a threat
00:03:25 – now Bonaparte Delton a series of
00:03:28 – crushing blow
00:03:36 – finishing them off in January 1797 in a
00:03:40 – three-day battle at Rivoli 60 miles west
00:03:43 – of Venice his victories in Italy began
00:03:49 – the legend of his invincibility
00:03:51 – immortalized in a series of romantic
00:03:53 – paintings own apartment was not only a
00:03:57 – warrior he was also a shrewd
00:03:59 – propagandist look after discipline
00:04:06 – issues see from his first triumph
00:04:08 – Bonaparte understood it's not enough to
00:04:10 – win victories he disease lavage he uses
00:04:15 – images to make sure that his victories
00:04:17 – in Italy are widely publicized in France
00:04:20 – could new Awful's it I couldn't
00:04:24 – completely understood that art is also a
00:04:27 – means of propaganda you could know that
00:04:30 – tableau he orders a painting after a
00:04:32 – victory he looked up he dictates the
00:04:37 – theme he looked up the layout of the
00:04:40 – characters which allows you got members
00:04:44 – of staff we even orders the dimensions
00:04:46 – of the frame
00:04:48 – Napoleon doomsy from the very beginning
00:04:52 – Napoleon gave himself an image ela don't
00:04:56 – believe Oh
00:04:57 – he created his own history is clear in
00:05:01 – the price he created his own newspapers
00:05:04 – France and the army of Italy and the
00:05:06 – newspaper of the army of Italy which
00:05:09 – exalt his victories they but about
00:05:11 – remember Bonaparte himself actually
00:05:13 – wrote some articles that he himself
00:05:16 – wrote Bonaparte flies like lightning and
00:05:19 – strikes like a thunder ball when a vast
00:05:22 – volume to declare a hawk
00:05:31 – while Bonaparte's Fame grew in France he
00:05:35 – was wearing out his welcome in Italy
00:05:38 – when he met armed resistance
00:05:40 – he ordered town sacked villages burned
00:05:43 – rebel shot many Italians now began
00:05:49 – doubting the general who said he fought
00:05:51 – in the name of Liberty but was sending
00:05:53 – convoys of gold and silver back to his
00:05:55 – government in France along with some of
00:05:59 – the great treasures of Italian art works
00:06:03 – by Michelangelo Titian Raphael the four
00:06:07 – ancient bronze horses from st. Mark's
00:06:10 – Basilica in Venice all would soon find a
00:06:13 – home in a new museum in Paris that would
00:06:16 – one day be called the Louvre while he
00:06:22 – ruled in Italy Bonaparte never stopped
00:06:24 – chasing Austrians just two months after
00:06:28 – his victory at Rivoli he had driven them
00:06:30 – from northern Italy crossed the Alps
00:06:32 – into Austria itself and by April 7th
00:06:35 – 1797 was within 75 miles of Vienna
00:06:39 – stunned by the advancing French armies
00:06:42 – the Austrian Emperor sued for peace
00:06:53 – Bonaparte himself negotiated with the
00:06:56 – Austrian diplomats he wanted Belgium the
00:07:01 – left bank of the Rhine and a new
00:07:04 – republic to be allied with France carved
00:07:06 – out of northern Italy when the Austrians
00:07:10 – objected to his demands he turned on
00:07:13 – them in a rage
00:07:14 – [Music]
00:07:15 – [Applause]
00:07:22 – we flung to the ground a treasured
00:07:24 – porcelain tea service
00:07:25 – [Music]
00:07:28 – this is what will happen to your empire
00:07:31 – each other your empire is nothing but an
00:07:34 – old maid servant accustomed to being
00:07:37 – raped by everyone Bonaparte the Austrian
00:07:44 – delegation reported to Vienna had
00:07:46 – behaved like a madman now almost there
00:07:51 – are a lot of legends about this never do
00:07:54 – it a technical career a hobby Napoleon
00:07:57 – was hot temper actual see sometimes with
00:07:59 – violent physical reaction community go
00:08:01 – special renamed the producer to agitate
00:08:04 – martial law and with negotiations
00:08:06 – dragged on too long so Napoleon became
00:08:08 – agitated started pacing back and forth
00:08:11 – get smacked into a small table and
00:08:13 – overturn to tea service
00:08:18 – whether by rage insult or shrewd
00:08:21 – diplomacy Bonaparte got what he wanted
00:08:24 – and he had dictated the terms of the
00:08:26 – treaty himself without instructions from
00:08:29 – the government in Paris he loves goods
00:08:34 – so that he just saw that his
00:08:36 – intelligence his abilities were more
00:08:39 – than just military no sooner do you
00:08:41 – become not only a great general but also
00:08:43 – possibly a future statesman and
00:08:46 – everybody realizes it not only in Italy
00:08:49 – but in France
00:08:50 – [Applause]
00:08:51 – [Music]
00:08:57 – at the end of 1797 28 year-old napoleon
00:09:02 – bonaparte returned to paris and handed
00:09:05 – the government the treaty which brought
00:09:07 – a fragile peace to the continent of
00:09:08 – europe now only Great Britain remained
00:09:12 – at war with France in just one and a
00:09:16 – half years he had taken his dispirited
00:09:19 – tattered soldiers marched them hundreds
00:09:21 – of miles and defeated the army of the
00:09:24 – Empire of Austria without ever losing a
00:09:26 – battle
00:09:27 – [Music]
00:09:36 – the French were hungry for a hero
00:09:38 – someone who could put an end to the
00:09:40 – political chaos into which the
00:09:42 – revolution had descended one government
00:09:45 – after another had come and gone now they
00:09:48 – lived under a new one the directory the
00:09:51 – directory was an unstable fragile
00:09:54 – parliamentary government that commanded
00:09:56 – no confidence all of France turned
00:10:00 – toward Bonaparte wondering what he would
00:10:02 – do next what I have done up to now is
00:10:06 – nothing he said privately I am only at
00:10:09 – the beginning of the course I must run I
00:10:11 – can no longer obey I have tasted command
00:10:15 – and I cannot give it up while Bonaparte
00:10:19 – waited for the right moment to seize
00:10:21 – power he set his sights on new glories
00:10:24 – in the exotic East he eluded a British
00:10:28 – fleet and on July 1st 1798 landed with
00:10:32 – 35,000 soldiers in Egypt France was
00:10:36 – still at war with Great Britain
00:10:38 – Bonaparte hoped to disrupt British trade
00:10:41 – routes to India
00:10:42 – [Music]
00:10:49 – Oh
00:10:50 – [Applause]
00:10:55 – in 1798 Egypt was still a source of
00:10:59 – wonder to most Europeans the Suk's
00:11:03 – crowded with Turks and Jews Syrians and
00:11:06 – Greeks the minarets sounding the call of
00:11:10 – an alien religion the Sphinx with his
00:11:15 – broken nose buried in the sand up to his
00:11:17 – neck when the Fox equivalent Bonaparte
00:11:23 – finds himself in a country of legends
00:11:24 – myths and a great history me citizens
00:11:29 – believe us at that that's good but it
00:11:31 – was really madness on his part because
00:11:33 – all of the military calculations at the
00:11:35 – time held that it was impossible for a
00:11:38 – European army to conquer to eat
00:11:41 – Bonaparte quickly captured Alexandria
00:11:45 – then on July 3rd led his soldiers across
00:11:49 – the desert toward Cairo and a looming
00:11:52 – battle for centuries the Egyptians had
00:11:58 – been part of a Turkish Empire ruled by
00:12:01 – the fiercest warriors in the Middle East
00:12:05 – the mammal oops
00:12:09 – [Music]
00:12:12 – remarkable for their courage pride and
00:12:15 – cruelty the mammal oops waited
00:12:17 – fearlessly for the French armies one
00:12:21 – mammal of Prince called them donkey boys
00:12:27 – in the book of food the Mameluke charged
00:12:30 – a cannon with their sabers and their
00:12:32 – horses with arms our Middle Ages sitting
00:12:38 – in the cold there was a meeting between
00:12:40 – the Europe of the future and the Egypt
00:12:42 – of the tax the pleiades organized his
00:12:48 – army into five gigantic squares these
00:12:52 – are men kneeling and standing and firing
00:12:55 – so you got a continual rolling fire the
00:12:59 – mama Luke's wrote around the squares and
00:13:02 – we're shot at by that square and by this
00:13:04 – square
00:13:05 – [Music]
00:13:11 – fresh lost 30 men the Mameluke lost 45
00:13:15 – or 6,000 the Battle of the pyramids was
00:13:22 – over in an hour
00:13:25 – three days later bonaparte led his army
00:13:28 – into cairo I was full of Dreams he said
00:13:34 – I saw myself founding a new religion
00:13:38 – marching into Asia riding an elephant a
00:13:41 – turban on my head in my hand the new
00:13:45 – Koran
00:13:57 – but Bonaparte's dreams of empire were
00:14:00 – quickly shattered
00:14:05 – the British Admiral Horatio Nelson
00:14:07 – topped the French fleet anchored off the
00:14:10 – Egyptian coast and blew it to pieces
00:14:16 – Bonaparte and 35,000 soldiers were
00:14:19 – trapped in Egypt the silviana the only
00:14:24 – link that he had with France bring his
00:14:25 – ships happy fleet of warships was he
00:14:29 – missing it you can imagine what a
00:14:31 – disaster this was it's a little too
00:14:34 – thick he was forced to stay in Egypt and
00:14:37 – live with the Egyptians the certifying
00:14:39 – is bread and water and Egyptian civil
00:14:41 – and even find ammunition for his weapons
00:14:43 – and even to live in Egypt Aviv on his
00:14:47 – youth while Bonaparte was marooned in
00:14:58 – Egypt his wife was buying a new home
00:15:01 – [Music]
00:15:06 – manor house six miles from Paris called
00:15:09 – mal mezzo
00:15:10 – [Music]
00:15:18 – there Josefin enjoyed over 300 acres of
00:15:22 – gardens woods and fields and the
00:15:27 – companionship of her lover when an aide
00:15:31 – dared to tell Bonaparte the truth the
00:15:33 – general was crushed the veil is torn he
00:15:39 – wrote his brother I am tired of grandeur
00:15:42 – all my feelings have dried up
00:15:45 – I no longer care about my glory at 29 I
00:15:49 – have exhausted everything furious he
00:15:57 – took the wife of one of his officers for
00:15:59 – a mistress his friends called her the
00:16:02 – generals Cleopatra cut off from France
00:16:07 – Bonaparte remained undaunted installed
00:16:11 – in a palace in Cairo he imagined himself
00:16:14 – an Eastern potentate following in the
00:16:16 – footsteps of Alexander the Great
00:16:19 – Eden honors youth I let that do not came
00:16:23 – to Egypt at the head of an army and
00:16:25 – suddenly he found himself at the head of
00:16:26 – a nation and it's not just any nation
00:16:29 – it's Egypt sale Egypt
00:16:37 – Egypt was an enigma to Europeans
00:16:41 – Bonaparte saw a chance to be the first
00:16:43 – to unravel its mysteries
00:16:45 – [Music]
00:16:48 – along with his army he had brought with
00:16:50 – him a remarkable group of mathematicians
00:16:53 – artists map makers and engineers they
00:16:57 – said about producing a monumental
00:16:59 – document a description of Egypt 24
00:17:03 – volumes of text and pictures they
00:17:10 – studied the crocodile and the Ibis music
00:17:14 – and mummies surveyed temples and tombs
00:17:18 – and measure the dimensions of the space
00:17:23 – one side has found a new species of blue
00:17:26 – water lily another an unknown Nile fish
00:17:30 – [Music]
00:17:31 – the most dramatic discovery of all was a
00:17:34 – big black stone with some puzzling
00:17:37 – inscriptions the rosetta stone would
00:17:40 – prove to be the key to the ciphering
00:17:42 – egyptian hieroglyphics the monumental
00:17:47 – volumes of a published by scientists
00:17:50 – that went along with them falling to
00:17:51 – Egypt laid the foundation for this study
00:17:54 – of Egyptology today
00:17:59 – the true conquests Bonaparte wrote the
00:18:02 – only ones that leave no regret are those
00:18:05 – that have been rested from ignorance in
00:18:15 – February 1799 Bonaparte took thirteen
00:18:19 – thousand soldiers into Syria the Sultan
00:18:24 – of Turkey had declared war on the French
00:18:26 – infidels and Bonaparte went on the
00:18:29 – offensive
00:18:29 – [Applause]
00:18:30 – after a quick victory at Jaffa he
00:18:33 – assaulted Accra where he was forced to
00:18:36 – lay siege to the well fortified city
00:18:41 – attack after attack failed claiming the
00:18:44 – lives of hundreds of French soldiers
00:18:49 – hundreds more were struck down by the
00:18:51 – bubonic plague Bonaparte abandoned the
00:19:01 – siege and retreated to Cairo with a
00:19:03 – dispirited army of sick and wounded man
00:19:06 – [Music]
00:19:07 – but Bonaparte refused to admit the
00:19:10 – extent of the disaster I am returning to
00:19:14 – Cairo with many prisoners and flags he
00:19:16 – proclaimed I raised the ramparts of
00:19:19 – Accra there is not a stone left standing
00:19:23 – [Music]
00:19:32 – on August 23rd 1799 Bonaparte secretly
00:19:37 – set sail for Hall abandoning more than
00:19:40 – 30,000 soldiers with little more than an
00:19:43 – apologetic message extraordinary
00:19:46 – circumstances alone have persuaded me to
00:19:49 – pass through enemy lines and return to
00:19:52 – Europe
00:19:58 – France was once again at war with
00:20:01 – Austria Britain and Russia civil war
00:20:04 – continued to tear the country apart
00:20:07 – the government in Paris was in disarray
00:20:10 – already there were rumors of an
00:20:12 – impending coup Bonaparte dreamed of
00:20:18 – rescuing France but feared he had not
00:20:21 – moved fast enough
00:20:24 – all great events hang by a hair he told
00:20:27 – a name I believe in luck the wise man
00:20:30 – neglects nothing which helps his destiny
00:20:35 – [Music]
00:20:42 – on October 9th 1799 he landed in France
00:20:47 – and found himself greeted by cheering
00:20:49 – trap the campaign in Egypt a military
00:20:53 – disaster had been a propaganda triumph
00:20:56 – for nifty aagama theaters what's being
00:20:59 – shown the expedition to Egypt the
00:21:02 – victory of the pyramids sculpted avi
00:21:05 – when he arrived he's considered the man
00:21:08 – of the hour she need not put his genius
00:21:13 – was to come to France and say you need a
00:21:16 – savior here I answers same well the
00:21:21 – Prosecco she did I could not wear the
00:21:24 – French people believe that Napoleon was
00:21:26 – destined to do great things
00:21:28 – so to Degas real good effort and all the
00:21:31 – engravings of the period we see the two
00:21:33 – frigates which brought Napoleon from
00:21:35 – Egypt I think all to shoot that Ivan
00:21:39 – above the first frigate Phoenix Don
00:21:45 – by October 16th Bonaparte was in Paris
00:21:48 – first he would settle with Josephine
00:21:52 – with his steady rise to fame and power
00:21:55 – the dynamic between the inexperienced
00:21:58 – soldier and the sophisticated society
00:22:00 – woman had shifted Bonaparte was
00:22:04 – determined to divorce his wife he
00:22:06 – returned home locked himself in his room
00:22:09 – and refused even to see her I will never
00:22:12 – forgive her he said never
00:22:18 – but Josephine was just as determined to
00:22:21 – win him back she climbed the stairs to
00:22:24 – his room and begged him to let her in
00:22:28 – but I thought that mr. Flamm Bonaparte
00:22:30 – puts his fist in his ears he refuses to
00:22:33 – hear her and she bangs on a door and
00:22:35 – cried I have loved only you baby but I
00:22:39 – thought with a Bonaparte kept saying no
00:22:41 – no no not putting a false Polian is
00:22:49 – forced to hear his wife crying begging
00:22:52 – he's swearing that you will never do it
00:22:54 – again promising that you will never do
00:22:56 – it again
00:22:57 – but just open the door
00:23:01 – by the time the Sun rose Bonaparte had
00:23:04 – weakened the next morning found husband
00:23:08 – and wife in each other's arms
00:23:12 – Josephine would never take a lover again
00:23:15 – and while Bonaparte would always insist
00:23:18 – that he loved her best he would do as he
00:23:21 – pleased with other women
00:23:29 – back in France less than a week
00:23:31 – Bonaparte saw that the time had come to
00:23:33 – act solemnly deliberating in the
00:23:38 – Luxembourg Palace the directory was
00:23:40 – about to be swept aside the debt from
00:23:43 – eight long years of war was mounting
00:23:45 – draft evasion rampant bandits roamed the
00:23:48 – highways in the countryside the
00:23:51 – government seemed powerless already
00:23:53 – there were schemes to overthrow it as
00:23:56 – the crisis ripened Bonaparte determined
00:24:00 – to find a way to seize power for himself
00:24:03 – his moment he knew had arrived he allied
00:24:07 – himself with one of the plotters a
00:24:10 – member of the directory Emmanuel Saez
00:24:13 – who needed the support of the popular
00:24:15 – young general so who did thought thank
00:24:19 – goodness coolness he had plans in the
00:24:21 – parliamentary coup a political coup
00:24:23 – dossier I see the Midford of the Sabha
00:24:28 – neat effect
00:24:29 – God that she has is in charge and force
00:24:32 – will only be used if something goes
00:24:34 – wrong look is really hot about General
00:24:37 – Bonaparte is only supposed to have a
00:24:39 – supporting role in this coup on November
00:24:44 – 9th 1799 Bonaparte and Sia's set their
00:24:48 – plot in motion
00:24:50 – it's really a very simple premise that
00:24:53 – the Parliament will put itself out of
00:24:55 – business they will vote in a provisional
00:24:58 – government that will in effect start
00:25:01 – over again draft a new constitution they
00:25:04 – expect that the bayonets will never be
00:25:06 – on sheath then a shots will never be
00:25:08 – fired for the coup to have an air of
00:25:13 – legitimacy Bonaparte and CEA's one of
00:25:15 – the legislators to vote them into power
00:25:17 – they didn't want to seize it
00:25:21 – Bonaparte counted on the help of his
00:25:23 – brother Lucien who had been elected
00:25:25 – president of the lower house of the
00:25:27 – legislature as a result of his brothers
00:25:30 – popularity but Lucien was powerless to
00:25:33 – persuade the council to dissolve the
00:25:35 – government they run into real opposition
00:25:41 – the opposition insists that every deputy
00:25:45 – renew his oath of allegiance to the
00:25:48 – existing Constitution which they do it
00:25:51 – takes over two hours to do this
00:25:53 – meanwhile the key plotters waiting
00:25:56 – outside of the wings as it were are
00:25:59 – getting very agitated and particularly
00:26:01 – General Bonaparte who eventually just
00:26:03 – loses patience and decides that he must
00:26:06 – intervene to speed things up
00:26:09 – the enters the legislative house this is
00:26:13 – strictly against the law the legislature
00:26:16 – is far to any outside military figure
00:26:21 – and what he counters there is genuine
00:26:26 – rage
00:26:29 – these members of the assembly they see
00:26:31 – these bayonets and that their skin hats
00:26:33 – marching down the main aisle with full
00:26:35 – apartment between them and they begin to
00:26:38 – shot brief outlaws off line try to take
00:26:41 – over the government
00:26:47 – and his brother
00:26:50 – Lucien didn't wait a minute my brother's
00:26:52 – not trying to take over the government
00:26:54 – calm down they say we wanna live long we
00:26:56 – want am outlawed Bonaparte never gets to
00:26:58 – utter a word to the to the deputies and
00:27:03 – he is in effect hustled out by the
00:27:05 – granted years who would come in with him
00:27:06 – and is quite badly shaken by this
00:27:13 – Bonaparte had bungled the coup seemed
00:27:16 – lost his chance for power finished when
00:27:20 – some of his own soldiers began to doubt
00:27:22 – their generals intentions his brother
00:27:25 – Lucien took control of the chaotic
00:27:26 – situation
00:27:28 – Lucien sees that Napoleon is going to
00:27:31 – miss the moment he has the drums beat he
00:27:36 – put draws his sword he walked over to
00:27:38 – Napoleon he presses that the point of
00:27:41 – the sword Napoleon's chest and he said
00:27:44 – leave me soldiers of France
00:27:46 – if the Polian aspired to take over the
00:27:49 – government be dictator I'd run him
00:27:50 – through
00:27:56 – the soldiers stormed the assembly hall
00:28:01 – the child legislators fled some jumping
00:28:04 – unceremoniously out the windows
00:28:10 – [Music]
00:28:20 – at 2:00 o'clock that morning a small
00:28:22 – rump of the council in league with the
00:28:25 – plotters reassembled and voted into law
00:28:27 – a new provisional government with three
00:28:30 – provisional consuls at its head
00:28:36 – Bonaparte was one of them
00:28:42 – service here yeehaw mid-august
00:28:46 – triumvirate is only a facade lucrative
00:28:50 – government their parliamentary coup had
00:28:53 – become a military it goes fall and a
00:28:56 – strong man is no longer seeing now we're
00:28:58 – just gonna be the f***
00:29:02 – within weeks Bonaparte outmaneuvered the
00:29:05 – other consoles rewrote the Constitution
00:29:06 – and made himself head of state under the
00:29:10 – title first console as the Year 1800
00:29:14 – began napoleon bonaparte 30 years old
00:29:18 – was the most powerful man in france the
00:29:23 – revolution bonaparte said is over and
00:29:26 – then he added I am the revolution
00:29:33 – [Music]
00:29:39 – war had catapulted bonaparte into power
00:29:42 – now war would help him secure it france
00:29:47 – was still fighting Great Britain and
00:29:49 – Austria Bonaparte conceived a daring
00:29:52 – plan to catch the Austrians by surprise
00:29:56 – in the spring of 1840 thousand men field
00:30:04 – artillery trekking across treacherous
00:30:06 – layers of snow and ice through the great
00:30:09 – Saint Bernard pass
00:30:11 – not since the Carthaginian general
00:30:13 – Hannibal had an army attempted such an
00:30:16 – outlandish offensive its 10,500 feet
00:30:22 – high they drag their guns and pine trees
00:30:26 – they hollow out like canoes they took
00:30:29 – off across the mountains
00:30:30 – [Music]
00:30:38 – [Music]
00:30:44 – on May 20th Bonaparte made the crossing
00:30:46 – himself Jacques lui dahveed memorialized
00:30:53 – the adventure in his heroic portrait of
00:30:55 – Napoleon mounted on a gleaming stallion
00:30:59 – in fact Bonaparte crossed the Alps
00:31:02 – riding a sure-footed new
00:31:08 – [Music]
00:31:10 – it took the general in his army just six
00:31:13 – days on the morning of June 14th he
00:31:19 – faced the Austrians at Marengo 45 miles
00:31:22 – from Milan
00:31:24 – [Music]
00:31:32 – by the end of the day there were 6,000
00:31:36 – French casualties nearly twice as many
00:31:39 – Austrians have been killed or wounded
00:31:43 – the French had won my power depends on
00:31:49 – my glory Bonaparte said and my glory on
00:31:53 – my victories
00:31:54 – [Music]
00:32:05 – [Music]
00:32:06 – early the next year the Emperor of
00:32:09 – Austria ordered a halt to the fighting
00:32:11 – and signed a treaty with France Great
00:32:14 – Britain followed the year after for the
00:32:18 – first time in ten years all of Europe
00:32:21 – visit BC the steam watch that won't be
00:32:25 – blown apart had been empowered just six
00:32:27 – months old and the people of France had
00:32:29 – seen other political regimes which had
00:32:31 – lasted only a year they said well
00:32:33 – Bonaparte might not laugh either I'll
00:32:36 – play by mine goes after Marengo things
00:32:39 – changeable ordinary people as well as
00:32:41 – people in the ruling class now thought
00:32:43 – Bonaparte would laugh now Bonaparte
00:32:49 – moved to consolidate his rule at his
00:32:53 – urging the French Constitution was again
00:32:55 – amended and at 33 Bonaparte became First
00:32:59 – Consul for life with near dictatorial
00:33:01 – powers a king in all but name the more
00:33:07 – power that Bonaparte gets the more he
00:33:09 – wants and it escalates step by step
00:33:13 – never too much at once always step by
00:33:16 – step gradually and always with the Polli
00:33:19 – looking back and saying remember I am
00:33:21 – going to protect the gains of the
00:33:22 – revolution they're safe with me
00:33:24 – as the 19th century began Bonaparte set
00:33:28 – out to prove that he could govern as
00:33:30 – well as he could fight a new born
00:33:33 – government he told his secretary must
00:33:35 – dazzle and astonish he built new parks
00:33:47 – bridges and caves along the sand now
00:33:52 – reservoirs and rows he would make Paris
00:34:04 – he said the loveliest city that ever was
00:34:06 – or ever could be in France the greatest
00:34:10 – country on Earth
00:34:12 – launching a series of sweeping political
00:34:15 – economic and legal reforms he laid the
00:34:18 – foundation for a new France all of
00:34:21 – French society came under his gaze he
00:34:25 – set in place a strong centralized
00:34:27 – government for the tightly structured
00:34:29 – far-reaching bureaucracy organized a new
00:34:32 – system of state secondary school the
00:34:35 – lycée established a central bank the
00:34:38 – Bank of France slowly the economy
00:34:43 – revived and with it prosperity
00:34:47 – all of Europe was in all the great
00:34:50 – artists and thinkers of the day Greta
00:34:53 – Hegel ayran Beethoven saw in Bonaparte
00:34:57 – the embodiment of the ideals and hopes
00:35:00 – of the revolution he oversaw the
00:35:04 – codification of a new system of laws
00:35:07 – which abolished feudal privileges and
00:35:09 – established the Equality of every man
00:35:11 – before the law own apart civil code
00:35:14 – remains the basis of French law to this
00:35:17 – day in 1801 Bonaparte signed an
00:35:22 – agreement with the Pope the concorda
00:35:25 – making Catholicism the dominant but not
00:35:28 – exclusive religion of France he had no
00:35:31 – personal use for religion but he
00:35:33 – understood its political barrier if I
00:35:36 – governed a nation of Jews he said I
00:35:38 – should restore the Temple of Solomon
00:35:41 – religion is excellent stuff for keeping
00:35:44 – common people quiet
00:35:50 – bonaparte ruled with the carrot and the
00:35:53 – stick to reward men of accomplishment he
00:35:57 – created a special mark of esteem the
00:36:00 – Legion of Honor my motto has always been
00:36:03 – he said a career open to all talents
00:36:06 – without distinctions of birth
00:36:08 – he believed in equality a man should
00:36:12 – have the chance to rise on the basis of
00:36:14 – his ability just as he had done but he
00:36:19 – had no patience with those who demanded
00:36:21 – Liberty he ruled with an iron hand
00:36:27 – crushing anyone who dared speak out
00:36:29 – against him making a sham of Parliament
00:36:32 – and free elections
00:36:35 – [Music]
00:36:38 – I had been nourished by reflecting on
00:36:40 – liberty Bonaparte said but I trust to
00:36:44 – decide when it obstructed my path
00:36:46 – [Music]
00:36:58 – while bonaparte ruled France
00:37:00 – Josephine gracefully assumed the role of
00:37:03 – first lady
00:37:03 – [Music]
00:37:09 – but she preferred the quiet seclusion of
00:37:12 – Malmaison to Frances magnificent palaces
00:37:15 – [Music]
00:37:20 – in deference to his wife bonaparte made
00:37:23 – Malmaison his countryside seat of
00:37:26 – government he worked seven days a week
00:37:30 – often 18 hours a day month after month
00:37:35 – [Music]
00:37:38 – but if it could be said that he ever
00:37:40 – relaxed it was at Malmaison with
00:37:43 – josephine in 1803 France was still at
00:37:50 – peace and Bonaparte was her absolute
00:37:52 – master when he looked across his borders
00:37:56 – the only country he had to fear was
00:37:58 – Great Britain Britain with the greatest
00:38:03 – Navy in the world Britain immensely rich
00:38:10 – France and Great Britain had signed a
00:38:13 – treaty of peace but no one expected it
00:38:16 – to last even before the treaty was
00:38:19 – signed one observer said peace in a week
00:38:22 – warp in a month
00:38:25 – love repair England England always
00:38:29 – England yeah Google Apple for all tigrin
00:38:33 – isla all crew is always a profound
00:38:36 – antagonism between a sea and the land
00:38:38 – between the strengths of the continent
00:38:41 – represented by Napoleon and the strength
00:38:43 – of the sea and international trade
00:38:45 – represented by England so if it folks
00:38:49 – think it was inevitable the war between
00:38:51 – France and England would resume the
00:38:54 – treaty is a misnomer it's really a truce
00:38:57 – you still have two great powers at odds
00:39:02 – with each other
00:39:02 – fighting for influence fighting for
00:39:05 – supremacy and they've basically fought
00:39:08 – to a draw at this point on May 18th 1803
00:39:15 – when Great Britain declared war on
00:39:18 – France few were surprised
00:39:25 – the two armies peered at each other
00:39:27 – across the English Channel neither
00:39:30 – willing to risk battle France held at
00:39:33 – bay by the British Navy Britain afraid
00:39:36 – to send soldiers to fight on the
00:39:38 – continent but as Bonaparte waited and
00:39:43 – readied his troops his confidence in
00:39:46 – himself and his star remained unshaken
00:39:49 – his victories had already made France
00:39:52 – larger than it had ever been he was the
00:39:55 – most feared man in Europe and his
00:39:57 – authority at home remained unchallenged
00:40:02 – 34 years old he was as powerful as any
00:40:05 – of the bourbon kings who had come before
00:40:07 – him all he lacked was a crown now he
00:40:12 – decided he wanted one he wished to be a
00:40:16 – king his idea is that given what France
00:40:20 – has achieved in the world it ought to be
00:40:23 – considered as a kind of Empire with the
00:40:25 – Polian Bonaparte as the Emperor this
00:40:28 – would put him on an equal footing with
00:40:29 – the Monarchs of Europe he would no
00:40:31 – longer be an upstart he would be one of
00:40:34 – the club
00:40:34 – [Music]
00:40:39 – on December 2nd 1804 the imperial
00:40:43 – procession made its way through Paris a
00:40:46 – Senate proclamation and a vote of the
00:40:48 – people both carefully arranged by
00:40:50 – Bonaparte himself had given him what he
00:40:53 – wanted he was about to become an emperor
00:40:58 – as soon as a man becomes a king he is
00:41:01 – set apart from all other men bonaparte
00:41:04 – said I always felt that Alexander the
00:41:07 – Great's idea of pretending to be
00:41:09 – descended from a God was inspired by a
00:41:12 – sure instinct for real politics in spite
00:41:17 – of the cold a half-million cheering
00:41:19 – spectators lined the streets
00:41:21 – [Music]
00:41:26 – Bonaparte himself had meticulously
00:41:29 – planned every detail the great
00:41:34 – cathedrals hung with pennants and
00:41:36 – tapestries and decorated like a Roman
00:41:38 – temple seem more like a theater than a
00:41:41 – church but Bonaparte wanted his
00:41:48 – elevation to glow with the aura of
00:41:51 – religion the Pope had been brought from
00:41:53 – Italy to sanctify the occasion now to
00:41:56 – coogee me the fail Guney noted that he
00:42:00 – has the genius of making the hope come
00:42:02 – to Paris which gives everything a sacred
00:42:04 – air did you see Angie dissolve that it
00:42:09 – is God and confirms to the changes that
00:42:11 – took place during the revolution are
00:42:13 – forever establish
00:42:17 – [Music]
00:42:33 – slowly Bonaparte and Josephine walked
00:42:37 – toward the two Thrones that awaited them
00:42:39 – dismantle adorned with gold and precious
00:42:42 – jewels and weighing 80 pounds was
00:42:46 – supported by his brothers he looked one
00:42:51 – spectator said like a Caesar on a Roman
00:42:54 – coin
00:42:57 – a little more than ten years before the
00:43:00 – French had beheaded a king now they were
00:43:04 – crowning an emperor born upon the great
00:43:07 – tide of the French Revolution and the
00:43:09 – wars that followed in its wake
00:43:11 – Bonaparte had turned his genius as a
00:43:14 – general and a statesman to the
00:43:15 – domination of France soon he would turn
00:43:19 – toward the conquest of Europe already he
00:43:23 – was planning an invasion of Great
00:43:24 – Britain to make him master of the island
00:43:27 – nation that their defiant
00:43:34 – [Music]
00:43:46 – confidently Bonaparte lifted the
00:43:49 – imperial crown and brought it to rest on
00:43:56 – his own head
00:43:58 – [Applause]
00:44:01 – then move toward Josephine and crowned
00:44:05 – her is Empress
00:44:10 – I and the instrument of Providence
00:44:15 – Napoleon said she will use me as long as
00:44:19 – I accomplish her design then she will
00:44:22 – break me like a glass
00:44:28 – [Music]
00:44:51 – [Applause]
00:44:58 – [Music]

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