00:00:12 – My name is Michael Greenfield and I am a guitar maker. Welcome to my workshop.
00:00:18 – My clients are artists, collectors and those who deserve the very best.
00:00:22 – They consult with me to address their musical needs and select options and features
00:00:26 – in order for me to make personalized musical instruments, and functional works of art.
00:00:31 – This documentary captures the journey, the process and the actual work in progress –
00:00:37 – glue smudges, ebony dust and all. What you're about to see took place over the period of four to five months.
00:00:56 – We're going to start bending sides, to form a rimset.
00:01:00 – I use a laminated rimset which means I take pieces of wood, sand them very thin to make veneers out of them
00:01:07 – and glue a whole bunch of them together. It makes a more rigid structure.
00:01:11 – So, we're going to add a little bit of water to this and wrap it in paper. The paper just keeps everything clean.
00:01:18 – I have these silicone rubber blankets, and one of them has a thermal couple on it, which is basically a thermometer.
00:01:24 – It gets plugged into these controllers. These controllers are programmed to ramp up to – in my case – 250° F, for one minute.
00:01:33 – Then it will ramp down to 190° F, and it will hold it there for half an hour.
00:01:39 – Then it will turn off and cool to room temperature.
00:01:43 – You can see even from the weight of the clamp as it starts to heat up, you can see the wood starting to sag.
00:01:57 – The heat will plasticize the natural resins that occur in the wood and allow it to bend.
00:02:04 – Then when it cools off again, those resins will resolidify and hold the piece in place.
00:02:15 – I just sit and watch the numbers, and smell the wood.
00:02:21 – It's been a few hours, everything has cooled to room temperature.
00:02:28 – You can see some of the resin that has come out of it.
00:03:32 – This is Julien, my apprentice and he is going to be installing the linings on this rimset.
00:03:43 – The linings are these little bendy pieces of woods that glued to the sides of the laminated rimset
00:03:51 – to increase the gluing surface so that the top and back will have more to stick to.
00:04:12 – Julien is bending the linings on this hot pipe with a damp paper towel on it
00:04:17 – to create steam and help the wood become more plastic and bend.
00:04:24 – While the linings themselves are fabricated with those little cuts to make it easy to bend
00:04:30 – it makes for a cleaner, more precise fit when we use heat to help form the part.
00:04:56 – So this is a really beautiful set of moon harvested alpine spruce.
00:05:03 – What they'll do is fell a tree, find the straightest, most beautiful part of the log, split that part of the log in half
00:05:12 – split it into quarters, and then wedges. They orientate that onto the saw so all the grain is vertical –
00:05:19 – these consecutive slices are opened up like a book –
00:05:25 – which is referred to as bookmatching. So these two consecutive slices which were numbered by the sawyer make up one guitar top.
00:05:32 – That's pretty common. It's very stiff and light – it makes for great guitars.
00:05:40 – You can hear it already. It's making music – all by itself.
00:05:48 – Ok! Let's turn this into a guitar top.
00:06:00 – So we just cleaned this up – it's easier for me to see and work with it.
00:06:05 – This is what we refer to as a pitch pocket – the natural resin that occures in the wood. I have it on this side as well.
00:06:11 – So, I want to make sure this falls outside of the guitar outline.
00:06:18 – This is absolutly not a problem, it's completely outside of the outline of the guitar.
00:06:23 – And this one is also outside the outline of the guitar. So I'm good.
00:06:28 – If this pitch pocket occured somewhere else in the set of wood, I would of haved to reject it.
00:06:35 – Which is unfortunate but, it's just the way it goes.
00:06:41 – Let's take a little hot hide glue.
00:06:54 – That's it! We'll come back in a few hours and see how we did.
00:10:44 – What I'm doing here is removing excess weight from the X-brace.
00:10:52 – By retaining the full height of the brace, I keep much of it's structural integrity
00:10:59 – And by pyramiding it towards the top, I'm removing – I don't know what percentage – but quite a bit of it's weight.
00:11:07 – So it makes a for a strong and light brace. It's all about making a responsive guitar.
00:11:14 – I remove mass to get the system as effecient as possible, but without going to far –
00:11:19 – which will result in a weak voice or at worst, structural failure.
00:11:33 – This is just a quick rough sanding, certainly not finished.
00:12:14 – So this is hide glue – animal glue – it's gelatin.
00:12:18 – I'm going to put this on to heat up now, it will be ready in about ten minutes.
00:12:30 – This thing is referred to as a Go-Bar Deck, and it's a very ancient way of clamping things.
00:12:40 – My understanding is that it was developped thousands of years ago in ancient China and they used bamboo sticks.
00:12:48 – This is fiberglass sail batten, PVC plastic – that advantage to this is
00:12:54 – it has a memory. It always go back to zero.
00:12:57 – If you use wood, over a period of time it starts to distort and bend.
00:13:01 – It's not the end of the world but you have to replace the sticks. I never replace these sticks, these sticks are over twenty years old.
00:13:53 – I'm going to sign the sound board, I sign every single one. This one is going to one of my agents in Europe.
00:13:58 – It's just a generic signature, so this is what happens.
00:14:05 – This is the 5th month of 2016, and now we're going to put it on the guitar.
00:14:10 – You know, the challenge is to keep – as with everything else about the guitar – to keep the inside of the guitar as clean as possible.
00:14:17 – So, it's like getting the perfect amount of glue on so you don't have a lot of squeeze out to clean up –
00:14:24 – but so that the guitar stays together and doesn't fall apart.
00:14:39 – We'll come back in 15 minutes and check the squeeze out.
00:14:48 – Now is the time where the glue is still soft enough, I can clean it out with a toothpick or something.
00:14:53 – But it's good! It's clean. *taps on sound board* That will take some work later.
00:15:24 – This one is number 268.
00:15:32 – I use handmade paper because it's a handmade guitar, why not use handmade paper?
00:15:39 – And we make them ourselves. There it is, one Greenfield Guitars label. Let's go glue it on.
00:16:35 – We have the sound board, we have the back we have the rimset.
00:16:39 – We're at a stage where these bodies have been closed and it's starting to look like a guitar.
00:16:50 – It's a vacuum that will hold the guitar in any number of positions and
00:16:55 – free it up for me to work on the sides.
00:17:19 – So this is ready for the next step, I'm going to check for flatness and round.
00:17:24 – This is just the remanence of that glue that we used to make the rimsets earlier when we were laminating.
00:17:30 – This will all get sanded out dead flat before we go to finish sand –
00:17:35 – I just don't want to remove any more material that absolutly necessary at this early stage.
00:17:55 – This is a piece of Honduran Mahogany.
00:17:57 – I bought enough of it for hopefully the rest of my career which would be awesome because
00:18:02 – it's getting exceedingly difficult to find in general, and of this quality and size in specific.
00:18:08 – Just to give you an idea…
00:18:11 – The ceilings in this workshop are 12 feet tall, and these boards were 17 feet long.
00:18:16 – You just don't find lumber – these sizes – that frequently anymore.
00:18:23 – Here is a piece that was sawn out of one of those boards and prepared
00:18:28 – closer to the size I need in order to make necks. The other material has been used to make internal blocks, other various structures.
00:18:35 – This is just a little universal template I made and it accomodates all of my various neck lengths that I use in the making of the guitars.
00:18:44 – So I'm just going to lay this out on the board and then we'll take it over to the bandsaw.
00:18:50 – Mahogany is a reasonably light and incredibly stable wood, which makes it such a great neck wood.
00:18:59 – I'm cutting this out and this is going to sit on a shelf for probably a year to 18 months.
00:19:07 – Even though this wood is very old and it's already been in my shop for several years –
00:19:12 – everytime you cut wood you release internal stresses and the wood will move.
00:19:18 – So when I build my necks, it's usually over a period of many months and sometimes years.
00:19:28 – Really nicely quarter sawn, straight grain, old growth, Hunduran Mahogany.
00:19:34 – Step one is we're going to trough this surface up which is where eventually the finger board is going to get glued on.
00:19:43 – It's this ongoing process of making things flat and straight, letting it move, releasing stresses.
00:19:55 – I'm just going to cut a slot in these to install the truss rod.
00:20:02 – This is a tool called a router plane, and it's just going to make sure I have nice clean even depth at the bottom of my slots.
00:20:22 – That's good. I'm going to establish the geometry for the neck.
00:20:33 – So we now have a clean, flat surface for a perfect glue joint.
00:20:41 – Boom.
00:20:47 – Even with no glue, you can hardly see the glue joint. You can't.
00:20:52 – That's why all that orienting and matching the blocks from the same board of wood, it pays off at this stage a couple years later
00:20:59 – once you prepare the joint.
00:21:16 – Just clean up the squeeze-out, and we're done.
00:21:19 – Okay, we're going to cut a fingerboard. This is my old, old, old table saw
00:21:25 – that has been relegated to this one task at this point.
00:21:28 – This is a fixture I made 25 years ago. Another one of my temporary fixtures that just works fine
00:21:33 – so I'm still using it.
00:21:35 – Here's a piece of ebony. This comes from Cameroon.
00:21:39 – It's been brought to thickest for one of concert classical guitars, model C1.
00:21:44 – These are fret-slotting templates that are available at various luthierie supply stores.
00:22:07 – There it is: twenty slots. All we have to do now is
00:22:11 – cut out the taper, the correct nut width, and this will get glued onto a neck a little bit later.
00:22:24 – Julien is now installing the purflings.
00:22:27 – These are a composite laminate of wood veneers that have been dyed
00:22:32 – and sliced into thin strips.
00:22:34 – They're for aesthetic purposes only.
00:23:33 – Unlike the purflings, which are mainly aesthetic, the bindings actually are installed
00:23:39 – to protect the joint between the soundboard and the rim set, or the back and the rim set,
00:23:44 – in case the guitar were to fall, or to take some kind of shock or impact.
00:23:57 – So, what this contraption is doing is: it's establishing the geometry between the neck and the body in three planes;
00:24:05 – in the vertical off the soundboard, which is going to establish the playability and the string height;
00:24:11 – left to right on the center line, which speaks for itself;
00:24:14 – also to make sure the neck goes down parallel to the top, because you don't want the neck to go askew.
00:24:21 – Because of the dial indicator and the mechanics of this fixture, I can dial in
00:24:27 – the neck geometry to within one-thousandth of an inch.
00:24:30 – So, for the player, it's exceptional.
00:26:01 – So, this is a truss rod, and what it does is: it's job is to counter the pull of the strings to keep the neck straight.
00:26:11 – So, this gets installed up against this little block of wood, which keeps it from moving backwards,
00:26:17 – and I'm going put in a mahogany filler strip on the top, which will help prevent any buzz.
00:27:34 – I'm just mixing up some marine-grade apoxy to glue the fingerboards on the necks
00:27:41 – now that everything has been prepared.
00:27:43 – And the reason I use apoxy as opposed to traditional hide glue — the animal glue that we used earlier —
00:27:50 – or even some of the other polyurethane resin glues, is they contain water.
00:27:54 – We've gone through this entire process of drying things out, getting them straight and level–
00:28:01 – if you add water to wood, the wood moves. So, I try and use non-water-based glues in the neck to keep things from moving around.
00:29:49 – So, the neck has now been rough carved, the majority of the material removed,
00:29:54 – so any movement that's happened in the neck, it's pretty much this is where it's going to live.
00:29:59 – This dial indicator is showing me there is about two or three thousandths of an inch
00:30:04 – of what we call back bow, which is a hump in the neck, and which is totally normal
00:30:09 – because we've removed wood from this surface and
00:30:13 – my job is now going to be to flatten this out in a straight plane from the nut to the bridge
00:30:21 – while maintaining my compound radius of my fret board.
00:30:53 – Down here, I'm about minus half a thousandth.
00:30:58 – Here, I'm about plus half a thousandth.
00:31:01 – Here, I'm reading zero.
00:31:05 – Here, it's half a thousandth, so that needs a little more work.
00:31:26 – This sandpaper is at a fine enough grit now that it's not going to change the geometry of the fingerboard or its radius.
00:31:41 – So as you see, we're moving across the entire fret board.
00:31:47 – That's pretty much dead flat.
00:31:50 – Perfect fret work and neck geometry is a big deal.
00:31:55 – With hand tools to get it within 5/10's, it's more than acceptable.
00:32:03 – So, I buy fret wire in large rolls like. This particular comes from Germany.
00:32:11 – It's really super high-quality stuff, and this gold colour: it's really a copper-titanium alloy,
00:32:17 – or at least that's my understanding of what it is;
00:32:19 – and it's much hard than the conventional nickel-silver fret wire that we've been using for… the last sixty years?
00:32:28 – Maybe seventy years? So, it lasts longer.
00:32:36 – As you can see becuase of the binding on the fingerboard,
00:32:39 – the fret can't go all the way through like on some of the older guitars;
00:32:43 – so I have to cut the tang, this T-part of the fret, to fit exactly into the slot.
00:32:49 – So, I use this little tool, and then each fret will be cut specifically for a slot,
00:32:56 – and I have to keep them in order.
00:33:04 – One side is plastic, one side is brass.
00:33:06 – Both of which are softer than the fret material,
00:33:10 – so that way when I'm hammering, I don't deform the frets.
00:33:41 – Okay, so everything appears to be really well seated.
00:33:45 – Now, I just want to see if there are any high frets at this point.
00:33:49 – If there was a high fret anywhere, I would feel it and hear it rocking.
00:34:20 – So now that the frets are in this neck before we finish carving it and do the final fitting of it,
00:34:28 – I just need to open up what will become the nut slot.
00:34:31 – So, I got this little fixture that I made, and what it does is: it's got the correct angle
00:34:38 – for the angle of the peg head, where the tuners go,
00:34:42 – so the nut sits in a parallel slot.
00:34:44 – This little gauge block is the same thickness as my nut.
00:34:49 – So now I'm making the cut!
00:35:02 – That tool is set to stop just short of the bottom, as you can see.
00:35:08 – I'm just going to clean this up a little bit with a chisel.
00:35:15 – And that's it. One nut slot.
00:35:17 – I'm going to glue a heel cap on the end of the heel, which is this part of the neck down here.
00:35:23 – If there are any adjustments to be made to the geometry, that's when it will happen.
00:35:29 – And it is exactly on the center line.
00:35:34 – Now that the frets are in it, it needs to be increased a little bit,
00:35:39 – but I will do that after I put the heel cap on.
00:35:47 – Now I'm going to transfer these little tick marks that I made to the neck,
00:35:54 – and I use the protractor to set the angle that will match the taper of the back,
00:36:01 – so when you look at the finished instrument, all the lines flow together naturally.
00:36:28 – Okay, so I'm going to make sure everything is fitting snug, which it is. Let's put some glue on this.
00:36:50 – I'm doing two things now: I'm matching the fit of this piece of mahogany to this piece of mahogany,
00:36:58 – so you get a super clean, super sharp line,
00:37:05 – and at this end, I am increasing the pitch of the neck ever so slightly.
00:37:09 – Doesn't take much.
00:37:12 – The neck angle is a real big deal.
00:37:16 – Beside the obvious ease of playability and comfort for the player,
00:37:23 – it's a key component in how the string energy is transferred to the soundboard,
00:37:29 – and how the whole system works. So if you get it right,
00:37:39 – you'll have a really comfortable instrument to play that's super responsive.
00:39:04 – When I make my bridges, I drill these two little holes in them,
00:39:09 – and what they allow me to do is to put the bridge exactly where it needs to be now.
00:39:14 – Drilled those two holes in the soundboard, so that after I mask and remove the tape
00:39:20 – I can just put the bridge back in the right place without disturbing the finish,
00:39:23 – and everything will be perfectly intonated.
00:39:26 – So, it should be somewhere around here.
00:39:37 – Hopefully, it won't move.
00:39:43 – So now that this is in the right place, I'm still going to check it one more time,
00:39:48 – because it's that important.
00:39:51 – If you don't put it in the right place, you have to take the top off and go again.
00:39:57 – Ask me how I know.
00:40:08 – We're basically at finish sanding now.
00:40:10 – The guitar has been rough-sanded to a high grit,
00:40:13 – everything has been flattened, everything is smooth, round.
00:40:17 – There are no little wavy sections.
00:40:19 – So now I'm going to bring it up to the final coarseness, or fineness, of sandpaper before it goes into the finish room.
00:40:26 – All of my final sanding I do by hand, inline with the grain.
00:40:55 – I'm just going to mask off the area of the soundboard, where the bridge is going to sit
00:40:59 – and where the fingerboard is going to be glue down, because you need to
00:41:03 – glue to wood — you can't glue to finish.
00:41:06 – With clean hands, I put down this piece of tape, which is really, really thin.
00:41:11 – It's about the same thickness as the finish.
00:41:13 – I have these little templates that I use for masking off the instrument.
00:41:20 – I have a surgical scalpel with a fresh blade, and I'm just going to very carefully trim the mask.
00:41:31 – Okay, so this guitar has had its first session of finish applied to it.
00:41:37 – It's what we refer to as the base coat.
00:41:40 – So, most of this finish is going to get sanded off. Right now, everything is shiny,
00:41:44 – and you'll see as we sand it, the shiny goes away, but sometimes you'll see little shiny spots.
00:41:50 – And the shiny spot represents a low area in the finish,
00:41:53 – so I have bring all of this surface down to a point where there are no more shiny spots;
00:41:59 – and that means everything is flat and level.
00:42:06 – See, I don't know if you could see, but there's like still a little shiny spot.
00:42:10 – So, that's a low spot.
00:44:32 – We're going to take off all the masking tape we put on a few weeks ago before this went into finish,
00:44:39 – so that we re-expose the wood and I have a good surface to glue to.
00:44:51 – We're gonna attach the neck.
00:44:54 – It doesn't have to be hot. You just want to take the chill off of it,
00:44:58 – so that the glue doesn't gel before I'm ready.
00:45:24 – Here we have a bridge that we made a couple weeks ago.
00:45:27 – It has a tiny little ledge. The ledge is one thousandth of an inch smaller than the lip left by the paint, which is four thousandths of an inch.
00:45:39 – So what happens is when this sits exactly where it needs to, it perfectly sits over the paint and there is just enough room left for the glue.
00:45:50 – So here I have a couple little wooden dowels that are exactly the right size to fit in here.
00:45:57 – And this will keep everything aligned during clamping.
00:46:01 – I'm going to heat up the parts, apply some hide glue, clamp it in place.
00:46:25 – So now that this has been done these guitars will sit like this overnight preferably for 24 hours before I move onto the next step –
00:46:33 – when we'll install the tuners and put the strings on.
00:46:42 – We're going to fit the nut and saddle to this guitar.
00:46:46 – This here is a saddle blank. It's just a rectangular piece of cow bone.
00:46:51 – I've taken that blank and brought it to the correct thickness and shaped the ends
00:46:56 – so that it fits precisely in this slot.
00:46:59 – As you can hear, it's a very tight fit.
00:47:02 – So, the first thing I'm going to do is I'm going to establish a radius
00:47:06 – at the top of this that's going to match the radius of the fret board.
00:47:10 – I'm just going to check the bottom of the saddle for flatness and square,
00:47:16 – because it's really important that I make good contact.
00:47:21 – There's a good fit. That's a good starting point.
00:47:24 – This is an old guitar-maker's trick: you take a half pencil
00:47:29 – and that's going to tell me where I need to be height-wise.
00:47:52 – This one I'm going to actually file off square a little bit,
00:47:56 – because it goes to the two outside tuners and they actually splay a little bit more.
00:48:06 – Here's a set of strings.
00:48:35 – Because everything I do is custom, the spring spacings change from guitar to guitar.
00:48:41 – So unfortunately, there's no quick way to do this.
00:48:48 – So what I'm about to do now is set some basic intonation points,
00:48:54 – and make any fine adjustments in a couple of weeks
00:48:58 – after the guitar's had some time to settle.
00:49:04 – Just like the nut has an angle to it so that the strings don't buzz,
00:49:09 – I need the same angle on the back so the strings don't buzz;
00:49:15 – unless of course, I was making a sitar.
00:49:49 – Okay so, at this stage, everything is very over-sized.
00:49:54 – Nothing is very refined. It's just some basic measurements to get me in the ballpark.
00:49:59 – Two weeks from now, I'm going to dress the frets — leveling of the frets, recrowning them and shaping them if it needs to be.
00:50:05 – I'll set the intonation at that point in time.
00:50:08 – But right now, I just want to get this guitar to a state, where it can
00:50:13 – get used to being a guitar; because right now, it still thinks it's a tree.
00:50:28 – When I string up a guitar for the first time, I'm always in awe.
00:50:32 – It's just a few bits of wood and some glue, and now it's making music!
00:50:36 – It never gets old, and it never loses its magic.
00:50:41 – I should be pretty close.
00:51:10 – Okay so, it's been a couple weeks since you were here last.
00:51:13 – These guitars have been strung to pitch, and they're ready to be adjusted
00:51:18 – to their final adjustment and final set-up.
00:51:21 – Set what we refer to as the action, which is string height between the twelfth fret and the bottom of the string.
00:51:28 – It's kind of a little bit of a ballet dance between
00:51:32 – bringing the string height down on the nut end, and then correcting the neck relief,
00:51:36 – and then finally bringing it down on the saddle.
00:51:39 – And I can take a measurement using this guage.
00:51:45 – So, this particular string
00:51:49 – is going to come down by three thousandths of an inch.
00:52:11 – I'm chasing a little bit less than the thickness of a piece of paper.
00:52:20 – Okay, the next step in the process is to check the intonation of the guitar.
00:52:24 – I have this strobe tuner that I've had for… twenty-something years?
00:52:31 – A long time, but because it's super accurate.
00:52:38 – This one is right on.
00:52:45 – This one's right on.
00:52:54 – It's really close. I'll tweak it.
00:53:10 – These strings have been on and off several times.
00:53:14 – This guitar is now ready to have the frets dressed.
00:53:20 – This is a single-cut, metal file
00:53:23 – with the same radius to it as the top of the fret.
00:53:28 – Perfect intonation happens when the string touches the top dead center.
00:53:37 – That's as much as we've removed.
00:53:40 – Like, sparks!
00:53:42 – Like, teeny-tiny little molecules. I'm going to repolish these,
00:53:48 – so they're like little bits of jewelry sitting on top of the guitar.
00:53:54 – I learned this technique over twenty years ago from a legendary guitar-maker
00:54:01 – and a guitar-repairer by the name of Roger Sadowsky.
00:54:04 – He's the guy who taught me how to do this, so thank you Roger.
00:54:17 – I'm going to be adding a little bit of a
00:54:21 – treatment and protector to the fingerboard.
00:54:24 – Now that the frets have been polished, this will help seal and nourish the ebony
00:54:31 – without making gummy or sticky.
00:54:36 – I fabricate these little mahogany plates. They fit over the bolts that hold the neck on.
00:54:42 – It's just a little aesthetic touch rather than leaving exposed bolts.
00:54:49 – And we can take out the little label protector that we put on three months ago,
00:54:58 – and trace this to the curvature of the fingerboard.
00:55:05 – Flip over to a finer grit.
00:55:10 – Right now, I'm just shaping the edges of the nut
00:55:17 – for two reasons: one is aesthetic,
00:55:21 – but more important, it gets rid of the sharp edge so the player won't feel it.
00:55:26 – It's more comfortable.
00:55:30 – And I'm going relieve the back edge.
00:55:46 – I'm just putting a little bit of this lubricant.
00:55:50 – There's graphite in it,
00:55:52 – and it helps the strings move in the slot.
00:55:56 – The glue isn't here so much as to hold the nut in —
00:56:01 – there's a couple hundred pounds of string pull holding it down, so it's not going anywhere —
00:56:06 – it's just to keep it from sliding around when the player is changing strings.
00:56:29 – Just put the truss rod cover on.
00:56:40 – We're at the end.
00:56:49 – At this stage, there's no more playing, there's no more touching.
00:56:53 – I'm giving it its final inspection;
00:56:57 – and once we put it in the case, the next person to touch this guitar will be its new owner.
00:57:07 – I'm just going to put the packet that contains the documentation for the guitar:
00:57:13 – certificate of authenticity, warranty information, there's like a care and feeding packet.
00:57:20 – There's also the key to adjust the truss rod,
00:57:23 – and there's a little shield for when you change strings so you don't dent the top.
00:57:29 – These cases are made in Croatia.
00:57:32 – They're carbon-fibre experts.
00:57:34 – In my opinion, these are the finest cases in the world, and as you can see
00:57:37 – they're fit to my guitars. I send them drawings of each of my instruments.
00:57:43 – And… that's it.
00:57:50 – I hope this has afforded you some insight into my craft,
00:57:53 – as well as the precision and attention to meticulous detail
00:57:57 – that goes into the fashioning of each one of my guitars.
00:58:00 – No guitar will ever leave my workbench unless I feel it is the best work I am capable of.
00:58:04 – More information about my work, how to order, and pricing is available on my website:
00:58:09 – greenfieldguitars.com
00:58:11 – Thank you for watching.